Means to an end relationship

9 Signs It's Time To End Your Relationship - mindbodygreen

means to an end relationship

When relationships come to an end, they often go through a series of predictable stages. New research shows how to tell whether you're ready to move on. The way that one achieves a specific objective, which is not an objective or ultimate goal itself. Having that unpaid internship was just a means to an end—it . The one sign that means it might be time to end your relationship that when a relationship starts going south we totally ignore all the signs.

If your fights as a couple keep concentrating on minor grievances rather than solutions for your problems, it might be a sign that the relationship is coming to a dead end. Arguments take energy and a certain amount of caring to actually fight over things you feel are important in the relationship.

Addressing issues and communicating with your partner are important factors of any relationship. If those days seem long gone and far away, it could be a sign that your relationship is headed for trouble. These days, so much of our communicating is done via texts and messages, and if your relationship has suddenly seen a drop in the number of these you send and receive, it indicates a lack of interest and thoughtfulness in the relationship.

But do you still feel that electric attraction you got when you first met your partner? The start of any relationship is filled with intense feelings and magnetic energy that drew you two together in the first place.

Feeling neglected is an awful thing to experience, and it can often signal the end of a relationship. Has the conversation between you two dried up? It could mean the end of your relationship.

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Since its founding init has focused on occupying idle farmland in large estates, leading to the permanent settlement of landless families there MST Over the years, the movement has established a large network of primary1 schools in these communities as well as a variety of other educational activities 2 McCowan ; Caldart The MST subscribes to a predominantly Marxist view of history, seeing the widespread poverty and inequality in Brazil as the result of the historic and 5 continuing exploitation of the workers by an economic elite MST We live in a capitalist society, structured according to a neo-liberal regime.

A society in which profit is above all else, leaving human values to one side, reinforcing social and cultural inequalities, increasing exclusion and undermining the foundation of society, that is the family4. With resources distributed evenly, political equality becomes a possibility, but the MST in this case advocates not a centralized state, but a radical democratic system, albeit with hierarchical structures of representation.

We have already learnt that social transformation is a complex process, which cannot be reduced to a simple seizure of political or economic power. It implies a process of a number of other changes that will be capable of building a new type of power, no longer oppressive or repressive like this one….

The MST does make some allowance for difference in its conception of citizenship, and is energetic in supporting the equal participation of women in decision-making in the movement McCowan On the other hand, there is a large degree of universality in the MST's conception. The movement's utopian vision is one of equality and solidarity, in which all people work for the good of society as a whole. In this, the individual is to a large extent subordinated to the collective, a notion that is of great importance in the MST, in contrast to the current individualism and fragmentation of society.

First of all, the current school system is seen to support injustice: Education is organized and developed so as to guarantee the structural continuance of the neo-liberal system, forming mere workers, without the ability to make a critical reading of society or to form their own conceptions, that is to say, an alienating education, one that has as an ally in this task the mass media, principally television. Six elements emerge from the data as distinctive to the MST approach. The first of these is the integration of political elements into the conventional subject disciplines.

By way of an example, the history component of Milton Santos School for the 6th grade is as follows: From the basis of the current Brazilian reality, search in the past for explanations for the happenings of the current time, awakening in the learners interest for the themes which allow them to situate and position themselves in Brazilian reality.

The black community, oppression, women, concentration of land ownership and exploitation are the principal themes worked with in the 6th grade. However, the political elements of MST education go beyond lesson content: To consider democracy a pedagogical principle means, according to our educational approach, that it is not enough for students to study or discuss it; it is also necessary … to experience a space of democratic participation, educating oneself through and for social democracy5.

They must do this, firstly, because it is their right to have a say in their own 7 education, and secondly because it is a valuable learning experience. The citizen abilities of political organization and participation are thus acquired through participation in these activities in school.

The most radical examples of this are seen in the MST teacher education courses Caldartbut it is also common in primary and secondary education. Students are expected to participate in the school council, the highest body of management of the school, along with teacher and community representatives.

They are also intended to form pupil collectives, which discuss student issues, and if necessary take them to the General Assembly MST b.

The emotions must also be engaged in political education. It becomes a celebration and aims to involve all those present in a single movement, to experience a single feeling, to feel themselves members of a collective identity…which goes beyond themselves and beyond the MST. Next, there is a strong emphasis on work, particularly agricultural work, performed in a collective and co-operative manner.

There are two ways in which work is to be incorporated in the school curriculum: The agricultural work also undertaken inside and outside school serves to foster positive rural values and identity, and to gain skills and knowledge in agricultural techniques. In terms of pedagogical approach, MST education is characterized by an adherence to dialogue.

In the Freirean sense, dialogue involves a radical alteration of the relations between teacher and student, and of the process of knowledge construction and acquisition: From our pedagogical practices we could verify the truth of the principle that says: That is to say, it is not only the teacher- 8 student relationship which educates: Everybody learning and teaching amongst themselves…. The collective educates the collective. Finally, the movement sees student participation outside the school as an essential learning experience: It is much bigger and involves life as a whole.

Some educational processes which sustain the Landless identity could never be realized within the school.

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The MST curricular programme is, therefore, characterized by attempts to modify the nature of schooling, while maintaining a conventional school format within the state system. It does this by integrating political content into lessons relating to land reform and the wider social strugglesdiversifying school activities to include co- operative work and movement rituals, transforming teacher-student relations and structures of management, and encouraging political activities outside the school.

Relating means and ends What is the basis on which the MST chooses its curricular programme? In the movement literature, reference is made to the fact that curriculum implies a selection of content, and that this selection is inherently political. The MST is clear about the principles which orient its choice in terms of curriculum content: At base we can affirm that it is also a question of using in this specific dimension the principle of social justice, that is to say, to select those contents which, on the one hand, relate to the equal distribution of knowledge produced by humanity, and on the other hand, which have the pedagogical potential necessary to educate citizens for social transformation.

means to an end relationship

In other words, we must analyse each piece of content to be taught, asking ourselves to what point it contributes to the concretization of the other principles which are dealt with in this booklet. The MST holds to the idea of overarching principles that are made concrete in educational practices.

The concretization is supposed to occur on the basis of the practical experiences of educators: They [the elements presented in the booklet] are a systematization of different experiences aiming to implement our pedagogical principles, and to make our schools a space for forming the Landless. We have already seen that the process of pedagogical construction is necessarily dynamic and must be constantly reflected on by all of its subjects. The key point, however, is that the means chosen, whether through practical experience or the weight of authority, are intended to be in harmony with the ends, in the sense that they must be undertaken in the same spirit, or following the same principles.

For example, the movement places great emphasis on co-operativism as a basis for organizing work in society: In order for a value to be incorporated in the lived experience of people, it must be observed by the students in the lives of the educators.

This can be seen in the place of work in the curriculum: There is also a separation of ends and means in the MST in that the educational work in general is intended to help achieve the extrinsic goals of land reform and changes in economic and political structures in society. Lastly, there is another sense in which the means and ends merge completely. The movement facilitates the participation of students in political activities outside the school, such as protest marches and land occupations.

Here the students are learning and developing as citizens means at the same time they are exercising their 10 citizenship ends — as advocated by Mill and Pateman There is no separation here between the preparation and subsequent performance. As the Barroso School conference document Society is seen to be characterized by the exclusion of certain segments of the population from valued arenas, from access to key services and from the exercising of political power. The overarching aim is to reverse this situation, making these arenas available to all.

What Does 'A Means To An End' Mean?

The PS is the initiative that places most emphasis on difference in its varying forms. While there are universal entitlements, the differences between citizens are acknowledged and supported. Instead of people adapting to the requirements of society, society is seen to have to adjust to accommodate different forms of people: We seek to construct a school in accordance with the plurality of cultural experiences and the necessities of the learners, a school which recovers its condition as a time and space of socialization, of lived experiences and construction of identities.

Interview with Luciana Importantly, rights and participation for the PS are not attributes of a future state, once adulthood has been reached, but are enjoyed by children too. The framework is opposed to the traditional view in which: The separation between time for education and time for action, time for childhood and time for adulthood, made time in school have meaning only in as far as it was a preparation for other times.

Childhood and adolescence 11 stopped having meaning as periods in themselves, as specific ages of the lived experience of rights. The child and the adolescent are not recognized as subjects of rights in the present. Original emphasis The Plural School, therefore, shares with the MST an opposition to the formal political equality of liberal notions of citizenship that are inattentive to power imbalances in society.

However, the response of the PS is distinctive in looking for forms of inclusion, and in its valuing of difference and diversity.

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Curricular programme The PS represents an attempt to radically alter the nature of schooling. Since school is an important source of exclusion, it is also a key site for reversing the situation. Interview with Luciana To ensure the full citizenship of all members of society, therefore, school must be made inclusive, and must function in a way that will allow all students to participate outside in the wider society. The transformation that the PS intends for the school aims to be deep and comprehensive: These are a means of combating the chronic levels of grade repetition among certain social groups, ensuring that students progress together as an age group Dalben The traditional eight grades are replaced by three cycles of three years the extra year enabling students to start at the age of six rather than seven.

The PS does try to make other provision in conjunction with the cycles, to provide extra support for those who are falling behind their peers and those with special educational needs.

The proposal is that this curriculum should be constructed from the basis of a collective definition of the themes that represent the problems put forward by the current situation, not in parallel to the curriculum subjects, but transversal to them….

It is necessary that a dialogical relationship is established in the classroom, where all can put ideas forward, ask, exchange, negotiate meanings, share. It is necessary to break with the monological pedagogy in which only the teacher speaks…. As stated in SMED The instruments of evaluation, however varied they may be, must reflect the philosophy of the Plural School, being an expression of a pedagogical relationship based on dialogue and the collective search for solutions.

In this way, the evaluative process ceases to be an instrument of sanction, becoming an instrument of the construction of a more plural educative process. Another element is the importance given to the participation of students in school: It is necessary to continue calling the pupils to participation. The concern of the PS for social exclusion relates to a number of factors. Firstly, there are socio-economic ones — the poorest in society, many of whom live in favelas, who have traditionally been unable to attend school.

There is also significant focus on the issue of race, particularly the discrimination and exclusion of the Afro-descendent population emphasized in the interview with Luciana. To a lesser extent, there is also a concern with issues of gender e. However, an area which stands out in the programme of the PS is the attempt to integrate those with special needs and disabilities into the mainstream classroom. This is pioneering work in Brazil, where these students customarily attend special schools or receive no education at all.

LIBRAS Brazilian sign language translators are employed so that deaf students are able to accompany the lesson within the same classroom. The municipality runs a Centre for Pedagogical Support for the Visually Impaired as well as a computer programme to give blind and visually impaired students access to IT. There is also pedagogical support for students normally considered to have behaviour problems Barroso School To offer to the pupils the conditions and possibilities for living together in plurality, considering the differences between races, classes and gender, developing attitudes of respect and mutual consideration.

Both, with strong Freirean influence, aim to introduce dialogue in the classroom, to install participatory structures so that students and the community are involved in decision-making, and to integrate local and academic knowledge. There are also more concrete steps to include all types of students in the same classroom.

However, there is much less emphasis than in the MST on the development of political knowledge, skills and values that will enable current and future political action and participation.

All these proposals note that school will develop these collective subjects in as far as they make them participants in the construction of humanized school spaces. Importantly, these means appear to be adopted on the basis of a moral imperative, rather than empirical evidence to show that they are appropriate for achieving particular ends. The proposal of general objectives for the curriculum, consistent with an educational framework which aims to value diversity, plurality and the differences of socio-cultural experiences, must start with a critical analysis of the concept of curriculum….

These orientations are both epistemological social interactionist constructivist and political social inclusion. However, there are occasions on which means appear to be derived in ways other than being consistent with these principles. For example, there is acknowledgement of empirical research as a basis for curriculum design: We start from the supposition, confirmed by the human sciences, that within the period of basic education there are smaller cycles of socialization and formation that must be respected and pedagogically organized.

There are also other occasions e. There is little evidence, on the other hand, of educational activities being organized to achieve separate and future goals in creating democratic citizens: It is run by the Regional Electoral Tribunals TREs in each state, usually in partnership with selected schools and other civil society partners.

means to an end relationship

The initiative is characterized by strong support for liberal multi-party democracy. However, it sees that the existence of formal structures does not guarantee a successful democracy, and that there are serious problems with its functioning in Brazil.

These problems are principally those of electoral corruption and clientilism, and are caused by a combination of unscrupulous, self-interested politicians and an apathetic and ill-informed electorate. As Amanda, a co-ordinator in the Federal District, states: Our country is suffering various crises in the political sphere because of a lack of awareness. So we need to motivate these pupils to reflect more, not to exchange their vote for basic provisions….

Interview with Amanda The system, according to this view, is basically good, and if the people can act in a moral, responsible and critical manner, then society will function justly and well. The necessity of political participation for all citizens is made clear in the introduction to a storybook for schools created by the TRE in the Federal District: We understand that school has a mission to transmit basic knowledge in relation to the matters outlined above [citizenship, rights and duties etc.

In relation to this electoral participation, there is a strong emphasis on political parties and their policies rather than candidates responding to relatively weak awareness of the former 16 and a strong dependence on the personalities of the latter in Brazilian politics. As the Roraima document states: The initiative is careful, however, not to favour any specific political party: Furthermore, VF does not see elements of individual and group identity as being of significance for citizenship.

The citizen in this initiative is understood to be the possessor of a set of rights protected by law, and a set of duties to respect the law, irrespective of differences.

While there is opposition to discrimination against particular groups or individuals, there is no attempt to address the exclusion of particular groups by providing differential treatment: In addition, and in contrast to the other two initiatives, citizenship is to a large extent seen as a future state, one attained once formal right to vote has been granted, and for which children must prepare themselves6.

Curricular programme Voter of the Future, therefore, is characterized by an adherence to the structures and principles of liberal democracy, with an awareness of the current abuses and malfunctionings of the system, and proposing in their place upholding of the law and active, responsible citizenship. Education is seen as a means for individuals to develop the necessary knowledge and moral qualities to participate effectively, and keep those in power accountable.

VF is different from the other two initiatives in that it is not a full curricular framework, instead consisting of particular activities run in schools at specific periods of the year. It therefore inserts itself into an existing school curriculum, without attempting to transform it. Learning to be a Citizen TSE This analysis will assess the three types of activities outlined here, as well as a fourth, mock elections.

The first recommends for teachers to: Organize the children and adolescents in a circle and ask each to speak about the last experience of exercising citizenship he or she had, describing the space or environment in which the scene occurred. The other three workshops follow a similar format, focusing on the following themes: However, the most prominent activity in the programme is the mock election.

These elections are sometimes for school officials such as class representatives, but the programme literature e. In the Federal District, the mock election is intended to take place as follows: The pupils will organize themselves in parties and will defend their public policy through campaigns, within and outside the school, through drama, music, marches, among other things, in interdisciplinary work.

At the end of the year, on a day to be confirmed, there will be an election of the parties of public policy, using the voting machines. On 18 the day of election there will be a counting of the votes and the immediate announcement of the winning party. TRE-DF A few of the students also have the chance to develop their skills not only as voters but also as candidates, preparing and delivering a political campaign.

In some cases there are parallel elections for the real candidates at municipal, state and federal levels. Another important form of activity in the VF is the competition. Poetry, music and art competitions are intended to develop skills of general expression and communication. In some cases, the visit includes some form of debate.

The official curriculum of VF is clearly different to that of the MST or PS in that it contains very little reference to structures or relations in the institution, or to teaching methods, pedagogy or pedagogical relations in class.

The absence of these elements from the official curricular programme does not, of course, mean that they are any less present or influential. In terms of participation, the programme does not prioritize the involvement of the community, nor is there is mention of involving students in the construction of educational activities, although their opinions are seen to be valued in classroom activities.

Relating means and ends Voter of the Future has a clear notion of its own aims and objectives, and states these explicitly. It also distinguishes these from the means of achieving them. However, there is no discussion of, or indication given as to the link between the two.

Unlike the other two initiatives, VF does not require harmony between the underlying principles and the way the educational activities are carried out. It has a set of goals in terms of knowledge, skills and values to be developed in students, and establishes a set of educational activities to achieve them separation of ends and means.

The latter largely consist of simulations, whereby competences developed in the school can be later transferred to real-life situations e. As stated in Santos Dumont School programme