Darius I - Wikipedia
By BC Xerxes had amassed a huge army and navy, and set out to conquer all of Greece. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia . A preliminary expedition under Mardonius in BC, to secure the land approaches to Greece, "Part VIII: Of Ideas of Relation – I. of Invention Formal: Chapter I: The Law of Help". According to Herodotus, Mardonius was a zealous Xerxes, Mardonius, Megabyzus and four other commanders could go to. Xerxes I called Xerxes the Great, was the fifth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia . One of which is Mardonius, who with slightly flattering words seemed to spur the king to his decision, and agreed on the matter. . Thanks to his family connection, Cyrus is brought up in the Persian court after the murder of .
He received it from almost all of them, except Athens and Spartaboth of whom instead executed the ambassadors. Datis and Artaphernes' campaign[ edit ] In BC, Datis and Artaphernes son of the satrap Artaphernes were given command of an amphibious invasion force, and set sail from Cilicia. The Persians then burnt the city and temples of the Naxians. For six days, the Persians attacked the walls, with losses on both sides; however, on the seventh day two reputable Eretrians opened the gates and betrayed the city to the Persians.
The city was razed, and temples and shrines were looted and burned. Furthermore, according to Darius's commands, the Persians enslaved all the remaining townspeople.
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- First Persian invasion of Greece
- Encyclopædia Iranica
Stalemate ensued for five days, before the Persians decided to continue onward to Athens, and began to load their troops back onto the ships. After the Persians had loaded their cavalry their strongest soldiers on the ships, the 10, Athenian soldiers descended from the hills around the plain.
The Greeks crushed the weaker Persian foot soldiers by routing the wings before turning towards the centre of the Persian line. The remnants of the Persian army fled to their ships and left the battle. Seeing his opportunity lost, Artaphernes ended the year's campaign and returned to Asia. It also highlighted the superiority of the more heavily armoured Greek hoplites, and showed their potential when used wisely.
However, in BC, his Egyptian subjects revolted, and the revolt forced an indefinite postponement of any Greek expedition.
Greco-Persian Wars - Wikipedia
Xerxes decided that the Hellespont would be bridged to allow his army to cross to Europe, and that a canal should be dug across the isthmus of Mount Athos a Persian fleet had been destroyed in BC while rounding this coastline. These were both feats of exceptional ambition that would have been beyond the capabilities of any other contemporary state. Herodotus gives the names of 46 nations from which troops were drafted. The armies from the Eastern satrapies were gathered in KritalaCappadocia and were led by Xerxes to Sardis where they passed the winter.
Most modern scholars reject as unrealistic the figures of 2. The topic has been hotly debated, but the consensus revolves around the figure ofOther ancient authors agree with Herodotus' number of 1, These numbers are by ancient standards consistent, and this could be interpreted that a number around 1, is correct.
Despite the fact their actions were ultimately fruitless, the Eretrians and in particular the Athenians had earned Darius's lasting enmity, and he vowed to punish both cities. Mardonius' campaign[ edit ] Persian warriors, possibly Immortalsa frieze in Darius's palace at Susa. Siliceous glazed bricks, c. Ironically, since the establishment of democracies had been a key factor in the Ionian Revolt, he replaced the tyrannies with democracies.
Diplomacy[ edit ] Perhaps reasoning that the expedition of the previous year may have made his plans for Greece obvious, and weakened the resolve of the Greek cities, Darius turned to diplomacy in BC. He sent ambassadors to all the Greek city states, asking for " earth and water ", a traditional token of submission. In Athens, however, the ambassadors were put on trial and then executed; in Sparta, they were simply thrown down a well. The citizens of Aegina had submitted to the Persian ambassadors, and the Athenians, troubled by the possibility of Persia using Aegina as a naval base, asked Sparta to intervene.
Datis and Artaphernes' campaign[ edit ] Taking advantage of the chaos in Sparta, which effectively left Athens isolated, Darius decided to launch an amphibious expedition to finally punish Athens and Eretria.
Size of the Persian force[ edit ] The various soldiers of the army of Darius I are illustrated on the tomb of Darius I at Naqsh-e Rostamwith a mention of each ethnicity in individual labels.
According to Herodotus, the fleet sent by Darius consisted of triremes.
Battle of Salamis
Herodotus claimed that 3, transport ships accompanied 1, triremes during Xerxes 's invasion in BC. Herodotus tells us that each trireme in the second invasion of Greece carried 30 extra marines, in addition to a probable 14 standard marines. However, according to Herodotus, there was at least a general conformity in the type of armour and style of fighting. In the center of the line the foreigners prevailed, where the Persians and Sacae were arrayed.
The foreigners prevailed there and broke through in pursuit inland, but on each wing the Athenians and Plataeans prevailed. In victory they let the routed foreigners flee, and brought the wings together to fight those who had broken through the center. The Athenians prevailed, then followed the fleeing Persians and struck them down. When they reached the sea they demanded fire and laid hold of the Persian ships. Lazenby estimates 30—40 transport ships would be required to carry 1, cavalry.