# Anova one sided relationship

### One-Way vs Two-Way ANOVA: Differences, Assumptions and Hypotheses | Technology Networks

The second is one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), which uses the . or treatments — is there a relationship between factory (or treatment) and the outcome?. an ANOVA, a regression or some other kind of test, you are given a p-value Two of these correspond to one-tailed tests and one corresponds to a two-tailed test. When using a two-tailed test, regardless of the direction of the relationship . 1) F tests in ANOVA (and similarly, the usual kinds of chi-square tests for count data) are constructed so that the more the data are consistent.

For example, you could use a one-way ANOVA to understand whether exam performance differed based on test anxiety levels amongst students, dividing students into three independent groups e. Also, it is important to realize that the one-way ANOVA is an omnibus test statistic and cannot tell you which specific groups were statistically significantly different from each other; it only tells you that at least two groups were different. Since you may have three, four, five or more groups in your study design, determining which of these groups differ from each other is important.

You can do this using a post hoc test N. If your study design not only involves one dependent variable and one independent variable, but also a third variable known as a "covariate" that you want to "statistically control", you may need to perform an ANCOVA analysis of covariancewhich can be thought of as an extension of the one-way ANOVA.

Alternatively, if your dependent variable is the time until an event happens, you might need to run a Kaplan-Meier analysis. However, before we introduce you to this procedure, you need to understand the different assumptions that your data must meet in order for a one-way ANOVA to give you a valid result.

We discuss these assumptions next. In practice, checking for these six assumptions just adds a little bit more time to your analysis, requiring you to click a few more buttons in SPSS Statistics when performing your analysis, as well as think a little bit more about your data, but it is not a difficult task. Before we introduce you to these six assumptions, do not be surprised if, when analysing your own data using SPSS Statistics, one or more of these assumptions is violated i.

This is not uncommon when working with real-world data rather than textbook examples, which often only show you how to carry out a one-way ANOVA when everything goes well! Even when your data fails certain assumptions, there is often a solution to overcome this. Your dependent variable should be measured at the interval or ratio level i. Examples of variables that meet this criterion include revision time measured in hoursintelligence measured using IQ scoreexam performance measured from 0 toweight measured in kgand so forth.

You can learn more about interval and ratio variables in our article: Your independent variable should consist of two or more categorical, independent groups. Typically, a one-way ANOVA is used when you have three or more categorical, independent groups, but it can be used for just two groups but an independent-samples t-test is more commonly used for two groups.

Example independent variables that meet this criterion include ethnicity e. Caucasian, African American and Hispanicphysical activity level e. You should have independence of observations, which means that there is no relationship between the observations in each group or between the groups themselves. For example, there must be different participants in each group with no participant being in more than one group.

This is more of a study design issue than something you can test for, but it is an important assumption of the one-way ANOVA. If your study fails this assumption, you will need to use another statistical test instead of the one-way ANOVA e. If you are unsure whether your study meets this assumption, you can use our Statistical Test Selectorwhich is part of our enhanced guides. There should be no significant outliers. Your independent variable should consist of two or more categorical, independent unrelated groups.

Examples of categorical variables include gender e. Caucasian, African American and Hispanicphysical activity level e.

### One-way ANOVA in SPSS Statistics - Step-by-step procedure including testing of assumptions.

You should have independence of observations, which means that there is no relationship between the observations in each group or between the groups themselves. For example, there must be different participants in each group with no participant being in more than one group.

If you do not have independence of observations, it is likely you have "related groups", which means you will need to use a one-way repeated measures ANOVA instead of the one-way ANOVA.

Fortunately, you can check assumptions 4, 5 and 6 using Stata. When moving on to assumptions 4, 5 and 6, we suggest testing them in this order because it represents an order where, if a violation to the assumption is not correctable, you will no longer be able to use a one-way ANOVA. In fact, do not be surprised if your data fails one or more of these assumptions since this is fairly typical when working with real-world data rather than textbook examples, which often only show you how to carry out a one-way ANOVA when everything goes well.

Just remember that if you do not check that you data meets these assumptions or you test for them correctly, the results you get when running a one-way ANOVA might not be valid. There should be no significant outliers. An outlier is simply a single case within your data set that does not follow the usual pattern e. The problem with outliers is that they can have a negative effect on the one-way ANOVA, reducing the accuracy of your results. Your dependent variable should be approximately normally distributed for each category of the independent variable.

Your data need only be approximately normal for running a one-way ANOVA because it is quite "robust" to violations of normality, meaning that this assumption can be a little violated and still provide valid results.

## FAQ: What are the differences between one-tailed and two-tailed tests?

You can test for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality, which is easily tested for using Stata. There needs to be homogeneity of variances. You can test this assumption in Stata using Levene's test for homogeneity of variances. Levene's test is very important when it comes to interpreting the results from a one-way ANOVA guide because Stata is capable of producing different outputs depending on whether your data meets or fails this assumption.

In practice, checking for assumptions 4, 5 and 6 will probably take up most of your time when carrying out a one-way ANOVA. However, it is not a difficult task, and Stata provides all the tools you need to do this. Stata Example An online retailer wants to get the best from employees, as well as improve their working experience.

• One-way ANOVA using Stata
• One-way ANOVA in SPSS Statistics

However, the retailer wants to know whether providing music, which a few employees have requested, would lead to greater productivity, and if so, by how much. Therefore, the researcher recruit a random sample of 60 employees. This sample of 60 participants was randomly split into three independent groups with 20 participants in each group: The experiment lasted for one month. At the end of the experiment, the "productivity" of the three groups was measured in terms of the "average number of packages processed per hour".

Therefore, the dependent variable was "productivity" measured in terms of the average number of packages processed per hour during the one month experimentwhilst the independent variable was "treatment type", where there were three independent groups: A one-way ANOVA was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in productivity between the three independent groups.

The example and data used for this guide are fictitious. We have just created them for the purposes of this guide. Stata Setup in Stata In Stata, we separated the three groups for analysis by creating the independent variable, called Music, and gave: Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. The scores for the independent variable, Music, were then entered into the left-hand column of the Data Editor Edit spreadsheet, whilst the values for the dependent variable, Productivity, were entered into the right-hand column, as shown below: Stata Test Procedure in Stata In this section, we show you how to analyse your data using a one-way ANOVA in Stata when the six assumptions in the previous section, Assumptionshave not been violated.

After you have carried out your analysis, we show you how to interpret your results. First, choose whether you want to use code or Stata's graphical user interface GUI. All code is entered into Stata's box, as illustrated below: You can run the oneway command without adding the tabulate command to the end of the code, but this provides useful descriptive statistics i. You can see the Stata output that will be produced here.

If there is a statistically significant difference between your groups, you can then carry out post hoc tests using the code below to determine where any differences lie. We show you the code to run the Tukey post hoc test below, which takes the form: It is not enough that your file is set up correctly with the relevant dependent and independent variables correctly labelled. Stata doesn't identify these for the purposes of carrying out post hoc tests until you have first run the one-way ANOVA.

Therefore, if you get an error message, you will have to run the one-way ANOVA procedure again and then enter the post hoc code a second time. You can see the Stata output that will be produced from the post hoc test here and the main one-way ANOVA procedure here. You will be presented with the following oneway - One-way analysis of variance dialogue box: Select the dependent variable, Productivity, from within the Response variable: