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Administratively, the Russian Federation is divided into 46 provinces . The overlap between surface water and groundwater resources has been Water resources in the Russian Federation are very unevenly distributed in relation to the basins make it practically impossible to transfer water from Siberia to Europe. and on Russian River at north end of Ukinh Valley to and beyond Wlllets ; rare at Geysers, and up canyon to Socrates Basin and over divide into Lake County. Thus, it can be argued that with respect to Russia the establishment and The European waters were divided into River Basin Districts (RBD), consisting of one .
Drainage basin - Wikipedia
Successive tributaries along the northwesterly course, after the Chulym, include the Chaya and the Parabel both leftthe Ket rightthe Vasyugan leftand the Tym and Vakh rivers both right.
Down to the Vasyugan confluence the river passes through the southern belt of the taiga, thereafter entering the middle belt. Below the Vakh confluence the middle Ob changes its course from northwesterly to westerly and receives more tributaries: In its course through the taiga, the middle Ob has a minimal gradient, a valley broadening to 18 to 30 miles 29 to 48 km wide, and a correspondingly broadening floodplain—12 to 18 miles 19 to 29 km wide.
In this part of its course, the Ob flows in a complex network of channels, with the main bed widening from less than 1 mile about 1 km on the higher reaches to nearly 2 miles 3 km at the confluence with the Irtysh and becoming progressively free of shoals. Low-water depths vary between 13 and 26 feet 4 and 8 metres. At high water there are great floods every year, sometimes spreading 15 or even 50 miles 24 to 80 km across the valley and lasting from two to three months. From its start at the confluence of the Irtysh, the lower Ob flows to the northwest as far as Peregrebnoye and thereafter to the north, crossing the northern belt of the taiga until it enters the zone of forest tundra in the vicinity of its delta.
The valley is wide, with slopes steeper on the right than on the left, and the vast floodplain—12 to 18 miles 19 to 29 km wide—is crisscrossed by the braided channels of the river and dotted with lakes.
Below Peregrebnoye the river divides itself into two main channels: These main channels are reunited below Shuryshkary into a single stream that is up to 12 miles 19 km wide and feet 40 metres deep; but after the confluence of the Poluy from the right the river branches out again to form a delta, the two principal arms of which are the Khamanelsk Ob, which receives the Shchuchya from the left, and the Nadym Ob, which is the more considerable of the pair.
Climate and hydrology The Ob basin has short, warm summers and long, cold winters.
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Rainfall, which occurs mainly in the summer, averages less than 16 inches mm per year in the north, 20 to 24 inches — mm in the taiga zone, and 12 to 16 inches — mm on the steppes. The western slopes of the Altai receive as much as 62 inches 1, mm per year. Snow cover lasts for to days in the north and for to days in the south.
It is deepest in the forest zone, where it ranges from 24 to 36 inches 60—90 cmand in the mountains, where it averages 80 inches cm per year. It is much shallower on the tundra, ranging from 12 to 20 inches 30—50 cmand very thin on the steppe, where 8 to 16 inches 20—40 cm fall. On the upper Ob the spring floods begin early in April, when the snow on the plains is melting; and they have a second phase, ensuing from the melting of snow on the Altai Mountains.
For the lower Ob, high water begins in late April or early May. Levels, in fact, begin to rise when the watercourse is still obstructed by ice; and maximum levels, which occur by May on the upper Ob, may not be reached until June, July, or even August on the lower reaches.
For the upper Ob, the spring floods end by July, but autumn rains bring high water again in September and October; in the middle and lower Ob, the spring and summer floodwaters gradually recede until freezing sets in.
On the lower reaches, flooding may last four months. Ice forms on the Ob from the end of October to the second week of November, after which the lower reaches begin to freeze solid. By the last week of November the entire river is frozen; the upper reaches remain frozen for some days, the lower for The thawing of the ice—which takes longer than the freezing—lasts from the end of April upstream to the end of May, and the spring drift about five days in duration produces considerable ice jams.
The difference in level between high water and low is 25 feet 8 metres at Novosibirsk on the upper Ob; it reaches 43 feet 13 metres at Aleksandrovskoye on the middle Ob but decreases to no more than 20 feet 6 metres at Salekhard near the mouth. And the late Soviet and postcommunist eras witnessed a revival of interest in once-forbidden artists such as the poets Vladimir Mayakovsky and Anna Akhmatova while ushering in new talents such as the novelist Victor Pelevin and the writer and journalist Tatyana Tolstaya, whose celebration of the arrival of winter in St.
Petersburg, a beloved event, suggests the resilience and stoutheartedness of her people: The snow begins to fall in October. People watch for it impatiently, turning repeatedly to look outside. If only it would come! Everyone is tired of the cold rain that taps stupidly on windows and roofs. The houses are so drenched that they seem about to crumble into sand.
But then, just as the gloomy sky sinks even lower, there comes the hope that the boring drum of water from the clouds will finally give way to a flurry of…and there it goes: Bioregional political organization today includes agreements of states e. Hydrology[ edit ] Drainage basin of the Ohio Riverpart of the Mississippi River drainage basin In hydrologythe drainage basin is a logical unit of focus for studying the movement of water within the hydrological cyclebecause the majority of water that discharges from the basin outlet originated as precipitation falling on the basin.
A portion of the water that enters the groundwater system beneath the drainage basin may flow towards the outlet of another drainage basin because groundwater flow directions do not always match those of their overlying drainage network. Measurement of the discharge of water from a basin may be made by a stream gauge located at the basin's outlet.
Rain gauge data is used to measure total precipitation over a drainage basin, and there are different ways to interpret that data. If the gauges are many and evenly distributed over an area of uniform precipitation, using the arithmetic mean method will give good results.
In the Thiessen polygon method, the drainage basin is divided into polygons with the rain gauge in the middle of each polygon assumed to be representative for the rainfall on the area of land included in its polygon. These polygons are made by drawing lines between gauges, then making perpendicular bisectors of those lines form the polygons.
The isohyetal method involves contours of equal precipitation are drawn over the gauges on a map.Drainage Basins (Watersheds)
Calculating the area between these curves and adding up the volume of water is time consuming. Isochrone maps can be used to show the time taken for runoff water within a drainage basin to reach a lake, reservoir or outlet, assuming constant and uniform effective rainfall.
A drainage basin is the source for water and sediment that moves from higher elevation through the river system to lower elevations as they reshape the channel forms. Ecology[ edit ] The Mississippi River drains the largest area of any U. Agricultural runoff and other water pollution that flows to the outlet is the cause of the hypoxic, or dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico.
Drainage basins are important in ecology. As water flows over the ground and along rivers it can pick up nutrients, sediment, and pollutants. With the water, they are transported towards the outlet of the basin, and can affect the ecological processes along the way as well as in the receiving water source. Modern use of artificial fertilizers, containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, has affected the mouths of drainage basins.