Both cancerous and aged cells show genome instability The relationship between cancer and aging: Why it is relevant that can cause mutations) that damage the DNA and increase the chances of mutations occurring. This paper summarizes key literature on the relationship between health care insurance .. cancer control topical module. Women ages 40+. (N=10,). Insured and uninsured . other predictors, the lowest calculated prevalence of cancer. when incidence rates for most cancers begin to increase significantly. At any age, smokers should be encouraged to quit and Emerging evidence points to the association of.
Table 4adapted from  shows the variations in DALY figures for both cancers in the six countries. The main purpose of producing these figures, have been to assess and monitor regional health and to set priorities that should be shared among these six countries.
Relationship of Breast and Ovarian Cancer to Age 4. Data and Methods In general, population-based registries are organizations for the systematic collection, storage, analysis, interpretation and reporting of data on subjects with cancer. They seek to collect data on all new cases of cancer occurring in a well-defined population.
Usually, the population is that which is resident in a particular geographical region. As a result, and in contrast to hospital-based registries, the main objective of this type of cancer registry is Table 3.
Age standardized death rates in the six AGS. Breast cancer deaths are the first entry in the table, and the ovarian cancer deaths are in the second entry.
Thus, the emphasis is on epidemiology and public health. The uses of population-based cancer registration data may be summarized as follows: Between and the age adjusted cumulative incidence of cancer in the six countries was. Figure 1 shows the relationship between the log-count natural logarithm of the number of cases of breast cancer cases and the log-midpoint of age. As can be see, the rates and the rates of changes are clearly divided into two distinct phases separated at about age The first phase represents the early years of reproductive life, and the second phase represents the post-menopausal years.
This trend in phase 1 is in agreement with the suggestion of Lilienfeld and Johnson  that the incidence increases by the same rate with each increment of age. The constancy of the rate of change in phase 1 is of quantitative importance because if the rate of change remains the same in the age groups 35, 40, and 50, the lifetime and incidence of breast cancer in AGS would be more than doubled in the next 12 years to follow.
In phase 2the decline in incidence as women ages increase is shown. The relationship between age and ovarian cancer incidence are shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5.
Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Young Women of the Arabian Gulf Region: Relationship to Age
The relationship between age and the number of breast cancer BC cases for phase 1 is adequately modeled by a simple linear regression model. An indicative of the goodness of fit of this relationship is the value of the Figure 1.
- Diet and activity factors that affect risks for certain cancers
- The relationship between cancer and aging: Why it is relevant
Cumulative breast cancer cases over the period for all ages. Cumulative count of breast cancer for the period for phase 1.
Incidence of breast cancer for the age phase 2. Incidence of ovarian cancer for the age periods above below 50 years of age. Incidence of ovarian cancer for the age periods above 50 years. Since our focus is on young women we shall give special attention to the relationship between age and the count in phase 1. Using SPSS version 20, we fitted the relationship : Now we need to verify the hypothesis of homogeneity of the rates of change in the number of breast cancer cases with respect age.
First, we definewhere. The chi-square test is: For BC cases the results are summarized in Table 7. The common estimate of the rates of change in BC count with respect to age areand for phases 1 and 2 respectively. It is estimated that 11 percent of stomach cancers worldwide can be attributed to tobacco smoking Tredaniel et al.
A growing body of evidence supports a lower risk of stomach cancer in former smokers compared with that in current smokers. The risk of stomach cancer decreases with increasing years of cessation, with the risk nearing that for those who have never smoked after approximately 20 years of cessation Tredaniel et al.
Page 51 Share Cite Suggested Citation: In the United States, both the incidence of cervical cancer and the rate of mortality from the disease have been declining steadily since the middle of the last century.
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Since the early s alone, the incidence and mortality for cervical cancer have dropped by approximately 40 percent Miller et al. Cervical cancer is now known to be caused in large part by chronic infection of the cervix by some sub-types of human papilloma virus HPV. Cervical cancer is more common in African-American women than white women.
One challenge with studying smoking and cervical cancer is potential confounding by other risk factors linked with low socioeconomic status. In particular, human papillomavirus HPV infection and high levels of sexual activity each increase the risk of cervical cancer and are each also more common in smokers than in nonsmokers. Separation of the effect of smoking from these other risk factors is key to uncovering the true relationship between smoking and cervical cancer.
Overall, case-control studies that have not controlled for HPV infection status demonstrate a twofold increase in the risk of cervical cancer in smokers compared with that in those who have never smoked, and the risk increases with the duration of smoking. For women who have smoked for more than 20 years, the risk of cervical cancer is threefold that for women who have never smoked Daling et al.
Results have been mixed in studies that have controlled for HPV infection status.
Some have found that smoking raises the risk of cervical cancer, regardless of HPV infection status Ylitalo et al. There is evidence of a probable inverse association between smoking cessation and cervical cancer. Taken as a whole, there are good data that former smokers experience a lower risk of cervical cancer than current smokers US DHHS, It is unclear how the amount of time since quitting affects the risk of cervical cancer in former smokers.
Diet and activity factors that affect risks for certain cancers
Page 52 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Men have about twice the incidence rate of women, and African Americans and Hispanics have about twice the incidence rate of whites Miller et al. There is evidence of a probable positive association between smoking and liver cancer. Although some studies on this topic have not adequately controlled for alcohol intake and viral hepatitis infection—two key factors that can potentially confound the relationship—the evidence supports a positive relationship with cigarette smoking and suggests a dose-response association.
Overall, the relative risk of liver cancer associated with smoking appears to range from 1. However, the results of all studies have not been consistent Doll et al.
There is only limited evidence that the risk of liver cancer is lower in former smokers than in current smokers US DHHS, Tobacco Use and Leukemia Approximately 30, cases of leukemia are diagnosed each year in the United States, half of which are classified as acute leukemia and half of which are classified as chronic ACS, a. The large majority of leukemias occur in adults, and men are about 50 percent more likely to develop the disease than women.
Whites have the highest rates in the United States, with certain Asian populations—Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans—having the lowest rates Miller et al. The current weight of evidence supports a causal association between smoking and acute leukemia, mainly of the myeloid type. A meta-analysis of 15 studies found that the data accumulated from prospective and case-control studies support relative risks of 1.
A dose-response was also seen with the number of cigarettes smoked. Overall, having ever smoked seems to increase the risk of leukemia by 30 to 50 percent.
For smokers who smoke more than a pack a day, risk appears to increase about twofold. The chemical benzene is one of the likely causal links between cigarettes and leukemia. In experiments with both humans and animals, benzene has been shown to promote cancerous changes in white blood cells Korte, Hertz-Picciotto et al.
It has been estimated that 14 percent of all leukemia cases in the United States may be attributable to cigarette smoking Brownson et al. The results of studies on the benefits of smoking cessation on the risk of leukemia are mixed.
Tobacco Use and Prostate Cancer More thanmen are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year in the United States, making it the most common cancer in men ACS, a. Although studies do not currently support a link between smoking and the incidence of prostate cancer, a growing body of evidence links smoking with mortality from prostate cancer.
A number of large, prospective cohort studies have documented a link between smoking and mortality from prostate cancer, with some demonstrating a dose-response relationship with the amount smoked Hsing et al. Overall, relative risks for mortality from prostate cancer seem to range from 1.
Unlike many other cancers, however, recent smoking seems to be more important than total lifetime exposure to cigarette smoke. Although the exact causal pathway between smoking and mortality from prostate cancer is unknown, it may be that the increased levels of testosterone and other adrenal hormones seen in the serum of smokers may stimulate the growth of prostate cancer cells Gann et al.
Tobacco and Endometrial Cancer Endometrial cancer is a common cancer in U. Current evidence documents that smokers have a lower risk of endometrial cancer compared with the risk for nonsmokers, most likely mediated through weight and hormone levels US DHHS, Increased serum estrogen levels and overweight primarily postmenopause are linked to an increased risk of endometrial cancer.
The changing demographics create new challenges for cancer care. First, the medical workforce may be too small to care for the increasing number of cancer patients. Second, the cost of the cancer care is increasing more rapidly than other medical sectors. Unsurprisingly, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services CMSwhich is the largest insurer for people over 65, is facing financial challenges.
How do we address the anticipated problems with the projected demographics? There is a definite need for more evidence-based research on treating elderly cancer patients to improve the quality of the treatment for the specific patient groupespecially because treating older cancer patients can be more difficult than treating younger patients.
We may also need to ask ourselves whether it is worthwhile prolonging our lives while compromising our quality of life. The overall mortality rate has declined since the early s, leading to more cancer survivorswith almost half of the survivors older than 70 years old.
But surviving cancer is not an end point. Patients can experience physical, emotional, and financial burdens. In addition, cancer survivors are at a greater risk to develop secondary cancers and other health problems. And considering that almost half of the survivors are older, the burdens can greatly affect their lifestyle post-survival. As a society, it is important to be aware, especially of issues that affect a large number of people.
Cancer is exactly that, since everyone grows old and becomes more vulnerable to cancer. While there is no one perfect solution, what we need to do come up with the best solution for our society is be aware, investigate, and discuss.