To explore the relationship between obesity and self-esteem, the Piers-Harris Self-Esteem Inventory was administered to black inner-city children (grades 4. More than of the students evaluated were overweight or obese, where % . Our research shows a negative association between BMI and self-esteem. There was no significant relationship between BMI and emotional problems and and poor self-esteem Many studies have confirmed that obesity is the.
These results are slightly higher than those found in groups of a similar age in other Spanish populations.
The last National Health Survey conducted in our country in published an overweight percentage of Although overweight and obesity are present throughout the world, these do not have the same rate in all regions. It appears that regions with a less favourable socio-economic status are at a higher risk. This occurs in Andalusia, where the gross domestic product per capita is the second lowest in Spain, as well as the percentage of persons who are illiterate or non-educated is clearly lower than the national average.
Strauss 20 stated that self-esteem in pre-adolescents who are obese 9—10 years old was not related with obesity, unlike obese adolescents 13—14 years oldwhere the overall self-esteem was related with the presence of obesity.
Childhood obesity and self-esteem.
A review conducted by French et al. Obese children with lower levels of self-esteem are more prone to engage in high risk behaviour, such as smoking and alcohol consumption; low levels of self-esteem were correlated with the start of tobacco and alcohol consumption among young people.
Studies that research the relationship between gender and self-esteem in adolescents have found that boys have higher self-esteem scores than girls during adolescence. Several authors point to adolescence as an especially vulnerable stage, where self-esteem and self-concept problems are frequent, since this is a period characterised by physiological, emotional, cognitive and especially social changes, which contribute to an increase in concern with the physical aspect.
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The gathered empirical evidence underlines that this concern is different according to gender, placing adolescent girls at risk due to their increased desire to be thinner, which is often times not justified. The study reported 14 that obese children were more likely to have poor health, activity restrictions, school problems, missed school days, and learning disability.
Many obese adolescent girls and boys are socially marginalized among their peers. After controlling for other factors, obese respondents were found to receive fewer friendship nominations than their normal-weight peers.
Overall, the relationship between obesity and social isolation was moderate in strength. In the present study, we found that All of these problems affected their relationships with their peers. In the National Longitudinal Study, 3 the total population consisted of 90, children aged years were assessed for height and weight.
Obese adolescents were more likely to be socially isolated, participate less in sports, and have fewer friendships; the isolation may aggravate the social and emotional problems in obese children. In light of these findings, they hypothesized that social marginalization of obese individuals contributes to reduced self-esteem and increased depressive symptoms among obese adolescents.
However, we confirmed the relationship between some school problems and BMI ratio; Study limitations The main limitation of this study was its cross-sectional design, which did not allow confident causal inferences. Prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Other limitations include the limited area covered, the sample size, the fact that some results were not used due to incomplete data, and the lack of information on the content of media use. In conclusion, this study analyzes the relationship between obesity and problems with physical limitation and social, school, and emotional problems among children.
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These analyses support the relationship between physical activity limitation, social problems, and BMI. On the other hand, our study confirms a negative relationship between emotional problems, school attendance, and BMI ratio.
The problem of obesity in children must be taken seriously and treated aggressively. We strongly recommend that children and adolescents be informed by physicians, dieticians, and teachers of the specific co-morbidities associated with childhood obesity. Authors have no conflict of interest, and the work was not supported or funded by any drug company.
When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. Anxiety and depression levels in prepubertal obese children: Social marginalization of overweight children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Childhood obesity and self-esteem.
Psychological complication of pediatric obesity. Pediatr Clin North Am. Relationship between BMI, waist circumference, physical activity and probable developmental coordination disorder over time.