PPT - Language and Society PowerPoint Presentation - ID
Sociolinguistics - the study of the relationships between a language system ( langue) and speaking (parole) in a social and cultural context. The study of language and society – sociolinguistics – can be dated to about . Whereas traditional dialectology focussed on the relationship between language. Thus, language, in turn, reveals information about its speaker. • So, when we talk about the relationship between language and society, it is an exploration of a.
Besides which, Eskimos don't really have all those words for snow - it's just one of those pieces of information that everyone repeats and no-one has checked if it's true. If you check, you find it isn't true!
There is an important lesson here that linguists can learn: Any Hopi or Inuit could have told us immediately that this was a load of nonsense, but no-one ever thought to ask them.
Many people, including linguists have done the same when describing sign languages, too. Often they have said things that people have come to believe when deaf signers have known it wasn't true. The point about the story is that this sort of control does not really work, and cannot work because if we do not have words for our thoughts, we just create them anyway. Still, some politicians and businesses do like to believe that the language we use will affect the way we think about something.
So, language doesn't affect what we can see in the world, but it is still possible that language affects people and society because maybe language still affects the way we can think. Some people say that sign languages don't have abstract signs because all signs are iconic and so deaf people can't think about abstract things like love, bravery, inflation, investment for the future etc. IF this was true, then we could say this was an example of language affecting people.
BSL can express anything that English can. A linguist called Basil Bernstein found that middle class children used an "elaborated" code of English in school. This meant they used more abstract words, less context dependent words and more complicated sentences.
Working class children seemed to use a more "restricted" code. This meant using more concrete words, more context-dependent and less complicated sentences. So some people but NOT Bernstein said this means working class children can't think in abstract ways because their language doesn't allow them to. This, of course, is nonsense. Just as with deaf people. All it means is that the children used different ways of expressing the same thing.
One example of the way that language is said to affect society is in sexist language.
The theory is that language affects the way we view men and women because it treats men and women differently. If you use words like chairman or fireman it implies only men can do the jobs, so women feel left out. It is worth noting, though, that the form of the words can influence our view of things.
Another feature of English that might exclude women is the use of "him" to mean "him and her". This way the language may create sexism in a society. But really, it's more likely that the society made the language sexist, eg using words to put women down like chick, bird etc. Bird used to refer to men and women, but now it is just derogatory to women.
BSL does not have gender pronouns to correspond to he and she, but does this make the deaf community any more or less sexist?
It is possible that signers look at the world differently from speakers, because sign languages are visual and spatial. If you think in a language that concentrates on order and space, then you are more likely to look at the world like that.
One of the biggest blocks to hearing people learning signed languages rather than signed versions of spoken languages is learning to think about the world so that it is spatially organised. Note, though, that hearing people are fully capable of seeing the world spatially - it's just that they aren't used to building space into their language. We have seen, then, that to some extent, language can have an effect on the way we think.
We need to consider the attitude that some people have towards their own language, and attitudes that other people have. The language that we use can make a big difference to the way that we see ourselves, and the way society sees us. It can also influence the way we relate to society. Find out which adverts on television have regional accents of English, and which have "middle-class accents. What products are they advertising?
Can you spot any pattern? Accent is very important in Britain. Advertisers on television only use regional accents for voice-overs if the product is cheap or if the aim is to amuse. Serious things or expensive products use the voices of middle-class men. During the war, the BBC had to use "middle class" speakers the read the news because no one believed the people with regional accents.
This has now changed, which goes to show that social factors in languages do vary and change over time. However, not all regional accents have the same social acceptability and "broad" that is, strong regional accents are still cannot be too strong for some media broadcasts. Everyone seems to have an idea what is a "good" language or variety and what is a "bad" one.
This opinion is entirely socially conditioned. Sometimes people with power e. Sometimes it is just ordinary members of a language community who have these views.
Chapter 9 Language and Society
Linguistically they are all the same, because they can all communicate in the same way, but they just have different social values. In the past, many deaf people weren't proud of their language and even denied they used it.
Now, there is more pride, but many deaf and hearing people still think it is not a "good" language, or that English is in some way "better". English is not "better" than BSL in any way, except that it does have a higher status in British society.
Social context will look at the relationship between language and power and attitudes to language. The language that someone uses may influence other people's attitudes towards them. People have fought and died for language e. In some countries in the world, you can be arrested for speaking a forbidden language.
The history of BSL is closely tied up with power. We can think of some of the abuses of children caught using signing in school. We can think of hearing people telling deaf people that they are stupid because "Deaf English" is influenced by BSL, so it looks like "bad English". Deaf people are often denied access to all sorts of jobs, or roles in society e. Hearing people writing in journals and newspapers about deaf people and get it wrong, but deaf people don't get the chance to reply because they feel their English is not up to writing a publishable reply.
All these are examples of a language being affected by power. This is the same for many languages all around the world, for example, minority languages in India. People may think their language is not a good language because it isn't the one taught in schools and isn't used in business.
People who use another language make more money and other people respect them, so people want to use that language. There may be some ways in which the language we use influences people and society. However, it is also possible that: As a result, language is not uniform or constant. Rather, it is varied and inconsistent for both the individual user and within and among groups of speakers who use the same language. People adjust the way they talk to their social situation.
An individual, for instance, will speak differently to a child than he or she will to their college professor.
Chapter 9 Language and Society - ppt download
One way that sociolinguists study language is through dated written records. They examine both hand-written and printed documents to identify how language and society have interacted in the past. This is often referred to as historical sociolinguistics: For example, historical sociolinguists have studied the use and frequency of the pronoun thou in dated documents and found that its replacement with the word you is correlated with changes in class structure in 16th and 17th century England.
Sociolinguists also commonly study dialect, which is the regional, social, or ethnic variation of a language. For example, the primary language in the United States is English. People who live in the South, however, often vary in the way they speak and the words they use compared to people who live in the Northwest, even though it is all the same language. There are different dialects of English, depending on what region of the country you are in.
Sociolinguists study many other issues as well. For instance, they often examine the values that hearers place on variations in language, the regulation of linguistic behavior, language standardization, and educational and governmental policies concerning language.
But the language function is not merely a means of communication. The means from the statement that the point is that language is different if we see from different aspec as mentioned above.
Explanation from language function as follow: Listener side From listener side, language function directive. Language is not just make listener do something, but do anything conform what speaker want. Speaker side From speaker side, language function personally or individually. It means that speaker explain about his attitude to what he speak. Topic side From topic side, language function reference. In this matter the language function as instrument for explain about object or happening in the sorrounding speaker or in the culture.
Code side From code side, language function metalingual or metalinguistic.
Monolingual society One language 2. Bilingual society Two language 3. Multilingual society More than two language In this part of the discussion, the writer will describe sociolinguistic factors, the dialects, languages in contact, language and education, and language use Holmes, ; Fromkin, Social factors The social factors are including the users, participants, social settings and functions.
The setting and social context are also relevant such as, at home, hospital and class. Social dimensions The relationship between the participants is one of the factors of the social dimension.
The factors like the social distance intimate-high solidaritystatus scale high-low statusthe status, formality formal-informal and functional scale topic of interaction are really influenced the sociolinguistics. Explanation factors This factor is to identify clearly the linguistic variation such as, vocabulary, sounds, grammatical construction, dialects, languages and the different social which lead the speakers to use one form rather than another such as, participant, setting or function of the interaction.
Dialect All speakers can talk to each other and pretty much understand each other. Between one and another do not speak alike. It can be influenced by age, sex, social situation and where and when the language was learned. When there are systematic differences in the way groups speak a language, it says that each group speaks a dialect of that language. The example when the two speakers are say I done it last night and I did it last night, they are saying different dialects.
Language in contact Sometime the user of language finds the speaker of language that speaks different language. It can be seen clearly in some part of the world that the speaker of bilingual communities, you may not have to travel very far at all to find the language disconnect.
To make the user understand about this situation, they need a language that can communicate each other.
In this part, lingua franca, bilingualism, pidgin and creole, are the kinds of language in contact. The details are explained below. Lingua Franca is the language that is used by common agreement of the people who speak diverse language.
English has been called lingua franca of the whole world. Pidgin is used to communicate among the people who have no common language Todd, Creole is defined as a language has evolved in a contact situation to become the native of generation of the speaker Fromkin, It can be said that creoles are the pidgin that has a native speaker.