Are Psychology and Islam Compatible? | About Islam
Geisler and Saleeb explain how Islamic psychology and its view of the Fall differs from biblical teaching: “Despite some general similarities to the biblical version. Islamic psychology or ʿilm al-nafs (Arabic: علم النفس), the science of the nafs (" self" or baths, music, and occupational therapy reflecting the great emphasis placed on the relationship between illness of the mind and problems in the body. Spirituality forms part of the religion and human beings in Islam are spiritual beings. An individual's relationship with Allah* is the central component of Islamic .
In reality, at times, everyone suffers from some kind of mental illness to a certain extent. From an Islamic perspective, the main causes of mental illnesses are usually the distancing from Allah, the influence of supernatural forces, and the poor development of schemas or our worldview. Allah informs us about it in the Quran: You might lack certain key skills and techniques, an ideal environment, or supporting individuals that would assist you to overcome your difficulties.
Islamic psychology acknowledges that humans are spiritual beings; thus, Muslim counselors or psychologists will combine their research-based knowledge about human nature with the teachings of Islam during the session s. Consequently, professional counselors work with scholars hand in hand to assist clients in the most comprehensible way.
Psychology in medieval Islam - Wikipedia
Allah says in the Quran: Spirituality positively affects life, marital satisfaction, ability to cope with crisis, illness and stress. Spiritual people those who live out their religious rituals with firm belief and sincere intention are happier and more optimistic; they find their meaning in life easier, have a stable personality, and usually enjoy higher social support.
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- Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders
- Islamic Psychology
They are less likely to suffer from depression, anxiety, suicide, criminal behavior, and addiction that are, in large part, products of the Western lifestyle and its individualistic society. It is permissible to cry and express grief over the death of a loved one.
Prophet Muhammad himself never forgot his love for his beloved wife, Khadijah, even years after her death. This is accompanied with anxiety and fear of Allah's punishment, both in this present world and the hereafter. Most of these patients come from families raised with a strong faith in Allah, but with an exaggerated sense of His punishment; God's love and mercy are diminished in their relationship with Him.
In therapy these patients may improve with interventions, such as modification of cognitive errors that focus on these thoughts and beliefs.
One of the foundations of Islamic belief is the understanding that Allah is able to do all things and He runs all affairs. This is an aspect of tawheed belief in the oneness of Allah that specifies oneness in Allah's Lordship. It is reported in a Hadith on the authority of Abdullah bin Abbas, who said: One day I was behind the prophet and he said to me: Be mindful of Allah, and Allah will protect you.
Be mindful of Allah, and you will find Him in front of you.
Psychology in medieval Islam
If you ask, ask of Allah; if you seek help, seek help of Allah. Know that if the Nation were to gather together to benefit you with anything, it would benefit you only with something that Allah had already prescribed for you, and that if they gather together to harm you with anything, they would harm you only with something Allah had already prescribed for you. Other cognitive adapting techniques that can be used to relieve stress and help in anxiety as well as depression, is to count how much God has blessed us and trying to focus on what we have and not on what we are deficient in.
Other way of cognitive restructuring is to help Muslims to learn from the Prophet Muhammad teachings that do not regret for things that have happened in the past, which one cannot go back and change, and to worry about what may happen in the future is useless. The person should think only about the present, focusing his energy on doing his best today, because this is what results in perfect work, and helps him to forget his worries and regrets and as the prophet said: Pay attention to that which could benefit you, seek the help of Allah and do not feel incapacitated.
We can find evidence of this in the holy Quran and Hadith. All human beings experience at some point in their life wasawis, regardless of age, sex, faith, or creed. However, the nature, content, severity, and influence of these wasawis vary from one person to the other. For some, they only cause mild anxiety and worry, while for others may be more severely affected to the point of becoming spiritually, mentally, emotionally, psychologically, and socially incapacitated.
We find in the holy Quran the counter adaptive thoughts for these obsessions wasawis as called in Islam [So when you intend to recite the Quran, seek refuge with Allah from Shaytan, the outcast. He has no power over those who believe and put their trust only in their Lord Allah. His power is over those who obey and follow him Shaytan and those who join partners with Allah] Quran On my true servants, you would have no authority.
Sufficient is your Lord as a guardian] Quran Moreover it can help to relieve the guilt feeling which is associated with the obsessions of religious nature. Alcohol and substance abuse Alcoholism is not a huge mental health problem among Muslims in comparison with Western society as Islam prohibits alcohol and substance use among Muslims. There is no specific age for drinking, or safe drugs to get high. As in Western countries most of the teenage alcoholics do not buy the alcohol from the store but get it at home.
Islam prohibits drinking completely total abstinence for all Muslim of any age and sex. It is the reason why the West finds it a difficult issue to manage the problems of drugs and alcohol, because it has made double standards. Therefore not only promiscuous sex is prohibited, but casual mixing of sexes freely is also prohibited, obscenity and pornography is also prohibited. The drinking of alcohol, or to come in contact with alcohol or any other spirits such as making, selling, keeping them, or even growing grapes for the sole purpose of selling it to winery for making wine is prohibited.
As mentioned in Quran. Intoxicants and gambling, dedication of stones, and divinations by arrows, are an abomination of Satan's handiwork: Smoking Muslims are forbidden to harm themselves or others. We all know that cigarette smoking causes a number of health problems that may lead to heart disease, emphysema, oral cancer, stroke, etc. The Quran, does not specifically prohibit smoking, but gives behavioral guidance.
Humans are not homosexuals by nature. People usually become homosexuals because of their surroundings. Of utmost importance is the environment during puberty. All creatures are created in pairs each with certain physical and psychological characteristics to complement and complete one another and to serve certain function.
The main function of the human being is to build up the society. The physical—psychological—spiritual development through marriage and mating, followed by procreation that may continue for more than one generation should help humans to understand the wisdom of God and his favors in creating life to build up a balanced society.
Homosexuality is harmful for the health of the individuals and for the society.
It is a leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Men having sex with other men leads to greater health risks than men having sex with women not only because of promiscuity but also because of the nature of sex among men. Mouth—anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms, which lead to various infective diseases. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses.
This is the reason why homosexuality is forbidden in Islam as Allah says: We also sent Lut: He said to his people: For ye practice your lusts on men in preference to women: Of all creatures do ye come unto the males, and leave the wives your Lord created for you? Nay, but ye are forward folk.
Many Hadiths discuss liwat sexual intercourse between males. Bowlby revealed that the permanent loss of a parent during childhood may increase the vulnerability to certain forms of psychopathology, for example, depression. By helping individuals to grow up under favorable conditions they could develop and lead a healthy life and realize his potentialities.
Drug abuse and excessive sexual activities are predominant in adolescents and young adults. These events lead to conflict, loneliness, guilt, loss of self-esteem, which results in manifestation of a variety of pathological disorders. There is nothing like a family especially if this is a supportive family, which can have a great impact on the illness outcome and the patient's quality of life. Psychiatrist and social workers need to consider the impact of family's involvement on individual mental health, which may be a double-edged blade.
On one hand, it may be helpful as the family may help in supporting the patients regarding his medications and psychotherapy, which help to improve the outcome. On the other hand, as the family unit is sacred among Muslim people and it is very common to find different families with over involvement and enmeshment patterns, who are considered a continuous source of support to the individual.
In some cases the family will interfere on behalf of the identified patient, although they too lack in trust, whereas they expect much. For example, they might try to control the interview by answering the questions directed at the client while they withhold information that may be perceived as embarrassing, they may interfere with his medications and choice of treatments.
Music therapy Reported evidence shows the magical effect of music to heal the body and strengthen the mind. They treated mental illnesses by confining patients in asylums with twenty-first-century techniques of music therapy.
The Sufis mention that mental and nervous disorders are cured by music. The great Turkish Islamic scientists and doctors Al-Razi —Farabi —and Ibn Sina — established scientific principles concerning musical treatment, especially of psychological disorders. He also outlined the effects of the makams of Turkish music differs according to the times they were effective i. Then the great Islamic thinker and philosopher Ibn Sina — applied Farabi music work in his practice with mentally ill patients.
Meditation therapy Meditation is based on concentrating on any one idea or object to the exclusion of all other ideas or objects. Meditation works by eliciting the relaxation response.
The relaxation response is characterized by decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen consumption, and muscle tension. In fact, the Quran describes Muslims involved in such a process of meditation as: Men who celebrate the praises of Allah standing sitting and lying down on their sides and contemplate the wonders of creation in the heavens and the earth with the thought: The Islamic perspective differs. If people use these divine qualities rightly in understanding God and following His law strictly, then he has nothing to fear in the present or the future, and no sorrow for the past.
Muslims see us as slaves of God. Whatever becomes of man after birth is the result of external influence and intruding factors. In denying that we are born with a sinful nature, the Islamic view of the human will differs from the Christian view which affirms that we have a real will capable of choosing good and evil, and are responsible for our thoughts and actions.
Abdalati explains the Islamic view of our free will: This is the essence of his humanity and the basis of his responsibility to his Creator. Without human free will, God would be defeating His own purpose and man would be completely incapable of bearing any responsibility. But responsibility for sin is borne by the actual offender alone. Sin is not hereditary, transferable, or communal in nature. Every individual is responsible for his own deeds.
And while man is susceptible to corruption, he is also capable of redemption and reform. This does not mean that Islam prefers the individual to the group.
Individualism means little or nothing when severed from social context. What it means is that the individual has different sets of roles to play. He must play them in such a way as to guard his moral integrity, preserve his identity, observe the rights of God, and fulfill his social obligations.