Modernization and industrialization are terms widely used in descriptions of of the relationship between modernization and industrialization which seems . Tradition, Modernity, and the American Industrial Worker: Reflections and Critique. Abstract: Many theories link urbanization with industrialization; in partic- . This evolution of world output requires us to look beyond the manufacturing sector. Discover the connection between industrialization and urbanization and located in a lesser-developed country, with an American city such as.
Both these developments along with the large supply of immigrant workers contributed to the industrialization of cities.
Industrialization and Urbanization in the United States, 1880–1929
The electrification of industrial facilities of all kinds proceeded quickly during the first two decades of the 20th century. Businesses got wired for electricity much faster than cities because they could make the most use of what started out as a relatively expensive service.
Because factories were concentrated in or near cities, it was a lot cheaper to wire them than it was to wire farms or even smaller cities away from electrical generating stations.
Many of the new factories built during this later period appeared outside city limits, another new development.
Electrification allowed managers to automate jobs once done by hand labor, thereby eliminating inefficiency, gaining greater control over the production process, and boosting overall productivity.
New devices like time clocks and even new modes of production like the assembly line also depended upon electric power. The advent of cheap and readily available electricity had a particularly important effect upon the physical layout of American cities during this period. Frank Sprague, an electrical engineer who had once worked for Thomas Edison, designed the first electric streetcar system for Richmond, Virginia, in Such systems supplanted horse-drawn carriages, making it possible for people to travel further and faster than they would have otherwise.
This gave rise to a burst of suburbanization, a spate of new towns on the outskirts of American cities where wealthy and middle-class people could move to escape from the difficulties of modern urban life but still be close enough to enjoy many of its advantages. The new suburbanites often traveled to and from work via new electric streetcars.
The electrical equipment manufacturer Westinghouse was one of the major manufacturers of vehicles powered by an overhead wire. Electric streetcars had the advantage over horses of not leaving manure or of dying in the streets. Streetcars were more popular during weekends than during the week as working class people took advantage of low fares to explore new neighborhoods or to visit amusement parks, like Coney Island, generally built at the end of these lines.
In the same way that employers and city planners depended upon streetcars to move people, manufacturers became more dependent upon railroads, afterto move their finished products. Railroad track mileage grew greatly after the Civil War, connecting cities and leading to the growth of new factories in places that were convenient to the necessary resources to make marketable goods.
Eventually, mass distribution was a prerequisite to benefit from all that increased productivity. For all these reasons, separating the causes and effects of industrialization and urbanization is practically impossible. Throughout the 19th century, factories usually had to be built near shipping ports or railroad stops because these were the easiest way to get factory products out to markets around the world.
As more railroad tracks were built late in the 19th century, it became easier to locate factories outside of downtowns. Streetcars helped fill up the empty space downtown where factories would have gone.
They made it easier to live further away from work and still commute to the heart of downtown, thereby making it possible for other kinds of businesses to locate there. One example would be the large urban department store, a phenomenon that predatesbut grew into its own after that date.
Structural Steel and Skyscrapers While retail emporiums could be blocks long and only a few stories tall, other business rented space in thinner buildings built much higher. By the late s, structures that had once been built with iron began to be built with a structural steel—a new, stronger kind of steel. The practice had begun in Chicago, championed by the architect Louis Sullivan, who designed the first skyscrapers there. Even then, such skyscrapers had to be tapered; otherwise, the weight from the top floors could make the whole structure collapse.
Creating structural steel for skyscrapers required entirely different production methods than had been required to make Bessemer steel which had been used primarily for railroad rails. Quantity and speed were the main requirements of producing Bessemer steel.
Structural steel required a more carefully made product.
The demands of structural steel encouraged steelmakers like Andrew Carnegie to redesign entire factories, most notably replacing older Bessemer converters with the open-hearth process. This new kind of steelmaking not only produced higher quality steel, it also required fewer skilled workers. The other innovation that made skyscrapers possible was the electric elevator.
Elisha Graves Otis designed the first reliable elevator in With electric power, it became possible to rise sixty stories in a matter of seconds. With elevators, tenants willing paid a premium in order to get better views out their windows. Without elevators, nobody would have bothered to erect a building taller than five stories.
Steel skeletons meant that the unornamented higher sections of a building could be worked on even before the inevitable elaborate ornamental fringes on the lower part of the building were finished.
This saved both time and money. When New York got so crowded that there was no space to store raw materials, the appearance of those materials would be carefully choreographed, and they would be taken directly off of flatbed trucks and placed in their exact positions near the tops of new buildings.
Around the turn of the 20th century, a major skyscraper could be built in as little as one year. The faster a building could be built, the faster an owner could collect rents and begin to earn back construction expenses. The great benefit of skyscrapers was the ability to compress economic activity into smaller areas.
Each building is an almost complete city, often comprising within its walls, banks and insurance offices, post office and telegraph office, business exchanges restaurants, clubrooms and shops.
By the s, the value of land in Manhattan grew so fast because of its possible use for skyscrapers that second generation industrial families sold their mansions, since they no longer wanted to pay huge property taxes on them.
The same basic principles of skyscraper production—build it quick and large, and pack it with people—motivated the way that builders produced other kinds of urban domiciles.
They came about as the result of a design contest, but were generally so crowded that they did more harm than good to the people who lived in them. Four families might live on a single floor with only two bathrooms between them. Designed to let light and air into central courtyards which explains why they were shaped like a dumbbell from abovestacked up back-to-back, one against the other they did neither.
Widely copied, New York City actually outlawed this design for new buildings in —but the old structures remained. Apartment houses made it easier to pack people into small urban areas and therefore live closer to where they worked. To counter these unequal tendencies, New Yorkers developed the idea of the cooperative, where many people bought a single building and managed it themselves.
Lavish apartments became alternatives for mansions once Manhattan real estate became too expensive for all except those with huge fortunes. The Assembly Line The farther away that people lived from central business districts, the more they needed efficient transportation. Streetcars helped, to an extent, but passenger lines that centered on downtown neighborhoods left large areas that could be occupied with housing for a growing working population, provided that these residents had their own way to get around.
It also revolutionized the entire concept of American production. He would make a market for his cars by producing them so cheaply that nearly every American could afford one. Ford could achieve both quality and a low price at scale because of the assembly line. In the same way that a single carcass was picked apart by men with specialized jobs as it moved along a line, mounted upon a hook, Ford arranged his new factory at Highland Park so that men with highly specialized assignments could build an automobile much faster than before.
The assembly line moved work to the men rather than forcing men to move to the work, thereby saving valuable time and energy. It also extended the concept of the division of labor to its logical extreme so that workers would only perform one function in a much larger assembly process all day, every day. The applicability of these principles to the manufacturing of just about everything is what made Ford such an important figure in the history of industrialization.
Mass production became possible for all kinds of things that had once seemed far removed from the automobile. Ford built Model Ts at three different facilities over the entire history of that vehicle.
He improved his production methods over time which included introducing and improving upon the assembly line so that he could produce them more cheaply and efficiently.
Efficiency depended on speed, and speed depended upon the exact place in the factory where those machines were placed. Because Ford made only one car, he could employ single-purpose machine tools of extraordinarily high quality. The company also used lots of other automated manufacturing equipment, like gravity slides and conveyors, to get parts of the car from one place to another in its increasingly large, increasingly mechanized factories.
Because the assembly line moved the work to the men rather than the men to the work, the company could control the speed of the entire operation. Like earlier manufacturers, Ford depended upon standardized, identical parts to produce more cars for less, but the assembly line also made it possible to conserve labor—not by mechanizing jobs that had once been done by hand, but by mechanizing work processes and paying employees just to feed and tend to those machines.
This was not fun work to do. Before Ford came along, cars were boutique goods that only rich people could afford to operate. After Ford introduced the assembly line actually a series of assembly lines for every part of the carlabor productivity improved to such a degree that mass production became possible.
Perhaps more important than mass production was mass consumption, since continual productivity improvements meant that Ford could lower the price of the Model T every year, while simultaneously making small but significant changes that steadily improved the quality of the car.
Mass production eliminated choice, since Ford produced no other car, but Ford built variations of the Model T, like the runabout with the same chassis, and owners retro-fitted their Model Ts for everything from camping to farming. The increased number of automobiles on city streets further congested already congested downtown areas. Pedestrians died in gruesome traffic accidents.Urbanization in the Industrial Revolution
One of the basic requirements of having so many new cars on the roads was to improve the quality and quantity of roads. Local city planners tended to attack such problems on a case-by-case basis, laying pavement on well-traveled roads and widening them when appropriate. New traffic rules, such as the first one-way streets, appeared in an effort to alleviate these kinds of problems. Traffic control towers and traffic lights—the mechanical solution to a problem inspired by industrialization—also appeared for the first time during this era.
Cities grew when industries grew during this era. Since people had to live near where they worked and few people lived in skyscrapersmany builders built out into undeveloped areas. If a city had annexed much of the land around it previous to these economic expansions like Detroitthose areas became parts of a larger city.
Chicago was so confident of further growth during this period that it built streetcar lines into vacant fields. To meet rising demand for housing, homebuilders applied industrial principles to building—using standardized parts that were themselves the result of mass production techniques.
By the s, buying pre-cut mail order houses became big business. The Origins of Mass Production Aftermechanization made factories even more productive thanks to technological improvements. The electrical and chemical industries formed the vanguard for the blending of science and the useful arts during this era.
By the s, engineers had been formally integrated into the management hierarchies of countless American industries. Reorganization of production merged with technological improvement had made mass production possible long before Ford developed the assembly line. By the end of that decade, it could producecigarettes in a day. By the s, mass production had arrived in industries that produced goods that were much more expensive than cigarettes.
Among the other manufacturers that used Fordist principles during the s were the makers of home appliances, like refrigerators and radios. General Electric, for example, built an eighteen million dollar assembly line for its Monitor Top refrigerator and sold a million refrigerators just four years after its introduction in People who moved from farms to cities desperately needed furniture for their new urban residences, but in industrial towns like Grand Rapids, Michigan, they could not afford pieces made by craftsman.
New mass-produced models made with minimal carving and overlays, based on stylish patterns, found a market all over the country. Its mission is to promote socially and environmentally sustainable human settlements development and the achievement of adequate shelter for all. Urbanization and industrialization are two transformative processes for wealth generation. In many periods of our history their complementarity has proved to be an important driver for development.
The industrialization process of Europe of the 19th century happened in parallel to an important urbanization process.
In the 20th century, the urbanization of China, considered one of the most impressive political and human transformations, occurred in accordance with unprecedented levels of industrialization, job creation and thus, poverty eradication.
In booming continents like Africa, with a very high pace of urbanization, major transformations are expected to happen with a close interdependence with industrialization and the knowledge economy.
The traditional nature of the economic growth of Africa has largely been based on the primary sectors of the economy, mainly agriculture and extractive industries.
The next steps of substantive development are already moving towards more productive sectors of the economy, mainly industrial manufacturing secondary sector and services tertiary sector.
Therefore, the relationship between urbanization and industrialization is undeniable.
The undeniable relationship between urbanization and industrialization
How can industries facilitate the effective implementation of this MoU in cities along the Belt and Road? This includes issues relating to national urban policies, land use and its administration, urban and territorial planning, the development of urban infrastructure and services, the spatial planning of special economic zones and of border towns, human settlements and housing development, as well as policies for human settlements and city migrants.
With respect to these cooperation areas, industries can play an important and positive role, for example as follows. For the formulation of national urban policies, urban and territorial planning in many developing countries, industrial development policies, industries layout and their distribution must be one of the important elements of policies and planning.
Industrialization will interact with urbanization in a positive way if both are harnessed in harmony, in a balanced and sustainable manner.
Industries can provide sustainable urbanization with immense driving force. This is particularly critical for the spatial planning of special economic zones. In this respect, China has a lot of experience and has learnt lessons in past decades which can be shared with the countries along the Belt and Road. For promoting the development of improved urban basic services and housing, it is hard to realize the effective delivery without applying the advanced technologies provide by industries.
Innovation and the upgrading of relevant industrial products and technologies must drive the progress of applicable technologies in the field of basic urban services and housing which has been manifested in many countries in the process of urbanization. So, integrating advanced industrial development ideas, technologies and products into urban development is an effective and efficient way to promote sustainable urbanization.