Phonological Awareness, Phonemic Awareness and Phonics - Make Take & Teach
Phonological awareness and phonics are therefore not the same, but knowledge of the relationships between phonemes and graphemes in. Children who have phonological awareness are able to identify and make can recognize words with the same initial sounds like 'money' and 'mother. might describe how difficulties with phonological or phonemic awareness affect their reading: program teaches phonological, phonemic awareness, and phonics skills. Phonics, phonological awareness and phonemic awareness are related but not the same. Phonics instruction teaches the connection between word sounds and .
Many children with learning disabilities demonstrate difficulties with phonological awareness skills Shaywitz, However, many other children have such difficulty without displaying other characteristics of learning disabilities.
Although a lack of phonemic awareness correlates with difficulty in acquiring reading skills, this lack should not necessarily be misconstrued as a disability Fletcher et al. More important, children who lack phonemic awareness can be identified, and many of them improve their phonemic awareness with instruction.
Furthermore, although explicit instruction in phonological awareness is likely to improve early reading for children who lack phonemic awareness, most children with or without disabilities are likely to benefit from such instruction R. O'Connor, personal communication, June 2, In short, success in early reading depends on achieving a certain level of phonological awareness.
With this in mind, we discuss documented approaches to teaching phonological awareness. Teaching phonological awareness There is ample evidence that phonological awareness training is beneficial for beginning readers starting as early as age 4 e.
In a review of phonological research, Smith et al. Documented effective approaches to teaching phonological awareness generally include activities that are age appropriate and highly engaging. Instruction for 4-year-olds involves rhyming activities, whereas kindergarten and first-grade instruction includes blending and segmenting of words into onset and rime, ultimately advancing to blending, segmenting, and deleting phonemes.
This pattern of instruction follows the continuum of complexity illustrated in Figure 1.
What is Phonemic Awareness?
Instruction frequently involves puppets who talk slowly to model word segmenting or magic bridges that are crossed when children say the correct word achieved by synthesizing isolated phonemes. Props such as colored cards or pictures can be used to make abstract sounds more concrete. During the last few years, publishers have produced multiple programs in phonological awareness, some of which are based on research. Figures 2 through 4 are illustrations of phonemic awareness lessons that are based on examples from these programs.
Instructional activity that teaches synthesis of phonemes into words. Students will be able to blend and identify a word that is stretched out into its component sounds. Picture cards of objects that students are likely to recognize such as: Place a small number of picture cards in front of children. Tell them you are going to say a word using "Snail Talk" a slow way of saying words e. They have to look at the pictures and guess the word you are saying.
It is important to have the children guess the answer in their head so that everyone gets an opportunity to try it. Alternate between having one child identify the word and having all children say the word aloud in chorus to keep children engaged. An Instructional activity that teaches segmentation at multiple phonological levels.
Students will be able to segment various parts of oral language. Early in phonological awareness instruction, teach children to segment sentences into individual words. Identify familiar short poems such as "I scream you scream we all scream for ice cream! As children advance in their ability to manipulate oral language, teach them to segment words into syllables or onsets and rimes.
For example, have children segment their names into syllables: When children have learned to remove the first phoneme sound of a word, teach them to segment short words into individual phonemes: An instructional activity that teaches phoneme deletion and substitution.
Students will be able to recognize words when the teacher says the word with the first sound removed. Have students sit in a circle on the floor. Secretly select one child and change their name by removing the first sound of the name.
For example, change Jennifer to Ennifer or change William to Illiam. As you change the name, the children have to identify who you are talking about.
As children become better at identifying the child's name without the first sound, encourage them to try removing the beginning sounds of words and pronounce the words on their own.
After children learn how to remove sounds, teach them to substitute the beginning sound in their name with a new sound. The teacher can model this, beginning with easier sounds common sounds of consonant s, e. Most early phonological awareness activities are taught in the absence of print, but there is increasing evidence that early writing activities, including spelling words as they sound i.
It may be that during spelling and writing activities children begin to combine their phonological sensitivity and print knowledge and apply them to building words. Even if children are unable to hold and use a pen or pencil, they can use letter tiles or word processing programs to practice their spelling. Instruction in phonological awareness can be fun, engaging, and age appropriate, but the picture is not as simple as it seems.
Difference Between Phonics and Phonemic Awareness
First, evidence suggests that instruction in the less complex phonological skills such as rhyming or onset and rime may facilitate instruction in more complex skills Snider, without directly benefiting reading acquisition Gough, Rather, integrated instruction in segmenting and blending seems to provide the greatest benefit to reading acquisition e. Second, although most children appear to benefit from instruction in phonological awareness, in some studies there are students who respond poorly to this instruction or fail to respond at all.
Therefore, we recommend two tiers of instruction. The first tier of instruction is the highly engaging, age-appropriate instruction that we introduced earlier. The second tier of instruction includes more intensive and strategic instruction in segmenting and blending at the phoneme level e. Beside content, another issue that requires attention in phonological awareness instruction is curriculum design. From research, we are able to deduce principles for effectively designing phonological awareness instruction.
These design principles apply for all students but are particularly important for students who respond poorly to instruction. These strategies may include using concrete objects e. Research suggests that by the end of kindergarten children should be able to demonstrate phonemic blending and segmentation and to make progress in using sounds to spell simple words. Achieving these goals requires that teachers be knowledgeable about effective instructional approaches to teaching phonological awareness and be aware of the ongoing progress for each of their students.
In the next section, we describe effective ways to assess phonological skills and monitor progress in phonological awareness. Assessing phonological awareness Assessment in phonological awareness serves essentially two purposes: The measures used to identify at-risk students must be strongly predictive of future reading ability and separate low and high performers. In this section, we discuss only measures that have been demonstrated to be valid and reliable.
We report the technical adequacy of the measures in the Appendix, rather than in the narrative description of the measure. As stated earlier, screening measures must be strongly predictive of future reading ability and must separate high from low performers. Segmentation is a second skill that is highly predictive of future reading ability e. Unlike rapid naming, segmentation is a skill that can be taught, and the instruction of segmentation benefits reading acquisition.
Screening measures must also separate high from low performers. This means that they must address skills that are developmentally appropriate. Phonological awareness skills seem to develop along a continuum from rhyme to segmenting.
Typically, students develop the ability to segment words into onset and rime during kindergarten and to segment words into separate phonemes between kindergarten and first grade. Therefore, most first-grade students perform well on an onset-rime measure, whereas most kindergarten students do poorly on a measure of segmenting into individual sounds.
In either case it is difficult to separate low and high performers. Although we know a great deal about identifying students at risk for reading difficulties, many questions remain unanswered. We recommend that teachers use a variety of screening measures, including one that measures automatized rapid naming and one that measures phonemic awareness sensitivity or segmenting. Typically, kindergarten students are screened for risk factors in acquiring beginning reading skills in the second semester of kindergarten.
Appropriate screening measures for the second semester of kindergarten include measures that are strong predictors of a student's successful response to explicit phonemic awareness instruction or beginning reading acquisition.
Predictors of the successful acquisition of beginning reading skills include automatized naming of colors, objects, numbers, or letters e. Other measures used during the second semester of kindergarten to identify students at risk for not acquiring beginning reading skills include measures of phoneme deletion.
The measures appropriate for identifying first-grade students at risk for not acquiring reading skills overlap those used in kindergarten. The TOPA-K and onset-rime are no longer appropriate, as students should have developed these skills by the end of kindergarten, whereas segmenting is still an emerging skill.
However, tasks such as automatized naming of colors, objects, numbers, or letters remain predictors for students at risk for not acquiring beginning reading skills, as do measures to determine whether students lag behind their peers in phonological awareness, such as measures of segmenting.
When using screening measures, the teacher must establish decision rules for identifying students requiring phonological awareness instruction.
The decision rules vary. The TOPA-K has normed scores and provides information to help a teacher decide whether to provide phonemic awareness instruction to students who score one or two standard deviations below the mean. However, there is little research evidence to guide decision making about which children should receive the more intensive phonological awareness instruction.
A second use of measures is to monitor students' progress. Unlike the screening measures, progress-monitoring measures must be sensitive to growth and require multiple forms. After the first semester of first grade, teachers may also be interested in monitoring their students' progress in generalizing phonemic awareness to reading and spelling. As with screening measures, teachers must establish decision rules about how to gauge the progress of their students.
One way is to establish a baseline by graphing three measurement points before the start of instruction, adding each subsequent data point to the graph, and checking the slope of students' progress. If many students are making slower progress than necessary to reach the level of their average-achieving peers, the teacher can modify the instruction by increasing one or more of the elements in the instructional guidelines. For example, if students are not acquiring segmenting, the teacher may decide to add more scaffolds, such as cards that the students can move as they segment words, thereby making segmenting instruction more explicit, or provide students with more guided practice.
If most students successfully respond to instruction but a few respond poorly or not at all, the teacher may decide to place these students in a flexible group to receive more intense instruction.
The teacher could also choose to provide some individuals with more intense instruction throughout the day to keep them up with their peers. If the progress-monitoring measures indicate that the first-grade students receiving instruction in phonological awareness lag behind their peers in reading or spelling, the teacher may choose to increase the integrated instruction in letter- sound correspondence and to make stronger the links between segmenting and blending skills and reading.
Brief descriptions of the screening and monitoring measures that have demonstrated validity and reliability through research follow. For each measure, we indicate the grade and purpose for which the measure is appropriate.
Note that some measures are appropriate for more than one grade level and for both screening and monitoring progress. Test of phonological awareness- kindergarten Second Half of Kindergarten; Screen. The measure consists of one form with 10 items requiring students to indicate which of three words represented by pictures have the same first sound as a target word and 10 items that require students to indicate which of four words represented by pictures begins with a different first sound than the other three.
The measure is administered to small groups of 6 to 10 children and is untimed. Students receive raw scores that are normed. Phonemes with more than one letter are usually referred to as blends, diphthongs, or digraphs depending on their composition. Instruction in phonemic awareness involves helping children examine and manipulate phonemes in spoken syllables and words.
Beginning readers must also be able to make the connection that words are made up of sounds and that sounds are made up of letters and letter combinations Gunning, This understanding is the foundation on which to build solid reading skills. One of the major components that determines a child's readiness to learn to read is his or her understanding of how the sounds work together. Children learn that words are made up of individual phonemes that help to make one word distinguishable from another word.
Phonemic awareness is this ability to take words apart, to put them back together again, and to change them to something else. It is a foundational skill around which the rest of the threads of reading are woven. In addition to understanding sounds, a child also needs to understand the concept of a word, how the position of a word first word or last word makes a difference in a sentence, and that words consist of individual letters. Children must also understand that letters have positions in words first letter, middle letters, or last letter and that some of these letters form syllables.
- Phonemic Awareness vs. Phonological Awareness
- Phonological Awareness: Instructional and Assessment Guidelines
- Phonological awareness explained
Some ways to help students develop their phonemic awareness abilities are through various activities that identify phonemes and syllables, sort and classify phonemes, blend phonemes to make words, break apart words into their various components, and interchange phonemes to make new words. Why Is Phonemic Awareness Important?