Teaching, learning, assessment, curriculum and pedagogy
the research-teaching link appear to be associated with a number of context considered beneficiary, a research-based approach to curriculum would .. elaborate complex phenomena at different levels, such as discipline. The teacher might need to translate these modules into concrete learning targets . similarities, differences as well as relationships and then exercise induction. Teaching, learning and assessment are aspects of the curriculum for which lecturers take responsibility. Having a shared understanding of these aspects is.
In this approach, it is necessary to control both the characteristics and the number of the distractors used. At the initial stage, the difference between the distractors and the target choice should be as great as possible and the number of distractors used should be as small as possible.
That means the strength of the distractors should be low e. As the child begins to master the initial step, the number of distractors used can be increased gradually. The teacher should teach them to gather relevant information from various sources, e. Activities, such as organizing a birthday party or a picnic, would help the children understand the procedures of information gathering and its importance.
The children are thus trained to observe the various characteristics of things --their similarities, differences as well as relationships and then exercise induction.
Through discussions, the children learn to look into problems and are thus motivated to think. Through discussions, they express their own views and at the same time listen to other children's views, so that they can review their own. The teacher needs to ensure that each child is given equal opportunity to participate in discussions.
Thus, discussions can promote greater interaction among the children. More important still, they help the children to realise the importance of accepting other people's views while expressing their own. The following are ways to teach target skills: There are various kinds of prompts: Prompts should only be used when required and should be faded out as soon as the children demonstrate certain degree of mastery. It involves successive approximation of the target behaviour.
Another aspect of shaping which is not so obvious is the shaping of the target behaviour by manipulating the materials used. An example of this is teaching the children to thread a needle with a big eye using thick thread and then gradually increasing the precision by using an ordinary needle and sewing thread.
At the initial stage, the teacher can use prompts with more help.
Looking for other ways to read this?
Then at a later stagehe can use prompts with less help. One common example is the gradual removal of the strokes of a word when teaching the children to write. The ultimate purpose of generalization is to reinforce the children's social adjustment. For example, when a child applies the table manners he has learnt at school to the environment of his home or a restaurantgeneralization is achieved.
Key elements and relationships in curriculum
The following are important considerations in formulating teaching approaches for MH children: He will have to teach them in groups or individually. The following are some suggested forms of grouping: This would help the children learn by imitating and helping each other and apply what they have learnt to other situations. Small group teaching also helps to reinforce the children's ability to communicate and co-operate with each other. Take the teaching of colour concept for instance.
The teacher can set the children's baselines according to assessment results and split the class into three groups as follows: The children are taught through a matching game to put the cubes into boxes of corresponding colours. The children are asked to pass cubes of the same colour to the teacher and name the colour after him.
The children are asked to pick up different things of the same colour and name the colour when the teacher picks up one thing. It is also important that curricula provide opportunities for discussions that help students recognize that some science- or engineering-related questions, such as ethical decisions or legal codes for what should or should not be done in a given situation, have moral and cultural underpinnings that vary across cultures.
Similarly, through discussion and reflection, students can come to realize that scientific inquiry embodies a set of values. Students need opportunities, with increasing sophistication across the grade levels, to consider not only the applications and implications of science and engi-neering in society but also the nature of the human endeavor of science and engineering themselves. They likewise need to develop an awareness of the careers made possible through scientific and engineering capabilities.
Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: For many students, these aspects are the pathways that capture their interest in these fields and build their identities as engaged and capable learners of science and engineering [ 3435 ].
Teaching science and engineering without reference to their rich variety of human stories, to the puzzles of the past and how they were solved, and to the issues of today that science and engineering must help address would be a major omission. Finally, when considering how to integrate these aspects of learning into the science and engineering curriculum, curriculum developers, as well as classroom teachers, face many further important questions. For example, is a topic best addressed by invoking its historical development as a story of scientific discovery?CIE - Knowledge, curriculum and learning - Jacek Brant
Is it best addressed in the context of a current problem or issue? Or is it best conveyed through an investigation? What technology or simulation tools can aid student learning? In addition, how are diverse student backgrounds explicitly engaged as resources in structuring learning experiences [ 3637 ]? And does the curriculum offer sufficiently varied examples and opportunities so that all students may identify with scientific knowledge-building practices and participate fully [ 3839 ]?
These choices occur both in the development of curriculum materials and, as we discuss in the following section, in decisions made by the teacher in planning instruction.
Instruction encompasses the activities of both teachers and students. It can be carried out by a variety of pedagogical techniques, sequences of activities, and ordering of topics.
Curriculum and evaluation policies and teaching policies
Although the framework does not specify a particular pedagogy, integration of the three dimensions will require that students be actively involved in the kinds of learning opportunities that classroom research suggests are important for 1 their understanding of science concepts [ 5], 2 their identities as learners of science [ 4344 ], and 3 their appreciation of scientific practices and crosscutting concepts [ 4546 ].
Several previous NRC committees working on topics related to science education have independently concluded that there is not sufficient evidence to make prescriptive recommendations about which approaches to science instruction are most effective for achieving particular learning goals [ 3 - 5 ].
Instruction throughout K education is likely to develop science proficiency if it provides students with opportunities for a range of scientific activities and scientific thinking, including, but not limited to: For example, researchers have studied classroom teaching interventions involving curriculum structures that support epistemic practices i.
Others have investigated curricular approaches and instructional practices that are matched to national standards [ 52 ] or are focused on model-based inquiry [ 24 ]. Taken together, this work suggests teachers need to develop the capacity to use a variety of approaches in science education.
That report defined the following four strands of proficiency, which it maintained are interwoven in successful science learning: Knowing, using, and interpreting scientific explanations of the natural world. Generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations. Understanding the nature and development of scientific knowledge.
Participating productively in scientific practices and discourse. Strand 1 includes the acquisition of facts, laws, principles, theories, and models of science; the development of conceptual structures that incorporate them; and the productive use of these structures to understand the natural world. Students grow in their understanding of particular phenomena as well as in their appreciation of the ways in which the construction of models and refinement of arguments contribute to the improvement of explanations [ 2955 ].
Strand 2 encompasses the knowledge and practices needed to build and refine models and to provide explanations conceptual, computational, and mechanistic based on scientific evidence. This strand includes designing empirical investigations and measures for data collection, selecting representations and ways of analyzing the resulting data or data available from other sourcesand using empirical evidence to construct, critique, and defend scientific arguments [ 4556 ].
Scientific knowledge is a particular kind of knowledge with its own sources, justifications, ways of dealing with uncertainties [ 40 ], and agreed-on levels of certainty. When students understand how scientific knowledge is developed over systematic observations across multiple investigations, how it is justified and critiqued on the basis of evidence, and how it is validated by the larger scientific community, the students then recognize that science entails the search for core explanatory constructs and the connections between them [ 57 ].
They come to appreciate that alternative interpretations of scientific evidence can occur, that such interpretations must be carefully scrutinized, and that the plausibility of the supporting evidence must be considered.
Thus students ultimately understand, regarding both their own work and the historical record, that predictions or explanations can Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: For example, over time, students develop more sophisticated uses of scientific talk—which includes making claims and using evidence—and of scientific representations, such as graphs [ 58 ], physical models [ 59 ], and written arguments [ 6061 ].