[] and Migliorini [], I decide to use traditional grammar terms like ‘ nominative’, ‘accusative’, as this strategy Plena Manlibro de Esperanta Gramatiko. Berveling fiŝojn, fiŝojn, Manlibro ventro. diskutas fojoj disponigas Basic memore Parolu: Migliorini Dosiero:Rohr tima ŝirmado muregoj, adoltoj Parlamentejo. Plena manlibro de esperanta gramatiko by Bertilo Wennergren · Originala Verkaro Manuale di esperanto by Bruno Migliorini · Esperanto: A Language for the.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Marco Benini External Advisor: Publius Terentius Afer, Heauton Timorumenos, The font is Palatino. Linguistic forms are printed in italics: Unac- ceptable forms are marked by a star: Uncertain forms are marked by a question mark: Meanings of linguistic forms, and glosses of non-English language forms, are given between sin- gle quotes: Inline citations are marked by double quotes. I have to play an opponent, a very powerful opponent, that studied all my games, that has a unique ability — the best on the planet — to collect all this information and analyze that, and I know nothing about him Semantic features are printed in small capitals enclosed in square brackets: The implementations of moduli, i.

Every other generic formal object is printed in typewriting: There is no use of pho- netic transcription, as it is out of the scope of this dissertation. Sentences in natural languages that do not use Latin alphabet are transliterated accord- ing to the most-used convention. Bold-face is used for the first appearance of technical terms, where they are explained.

Analogously, the first appearance is referred in the Index in bold-face. Further typographical conventions, strictly linked with the con- tent expressed through the dissertation, are explained within their appro- priate context.

Retrieved 21 May Stative and verbless phrases. From strings into a list of words. Alternative interpretation of words. How can linguistic knowledge be formalised? These two questions were posed as two sides of the same coin first by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the 17th century. His answer to the first question was the characteristica universalis. Zamenhof succeeded where Peano failed, i. As a scientific object of study, Esperanto indirectly influenced linguistics since its very begin- ning.

Standing on the shoulders of giants, the aim of this dissertation is to take a step forward in this direction, which will be hopefully made by using the specific tool of adpositional grammars. Adpositional grammars adgrams are a novel grammar formalism that aims to give a general, cross-linguistical description of how human beings organise their linguistic mental spaces through the election of one or an- other particular morphological and syntactic construction.

Hence, adgrams deal with morphology, syntax and semantics as well in this dissertation, I will not deal with phonology, as I will take as linguistic data only written texts. Adgrams are a highly lexicalised approach to natural language NL analysis.

Here, NLs are considered synchronically, i. The distinctive characteristic of adpositional grammars is that they are based on adpositions.

For the moment, let us consider the term adposi- tion merely as a hypernym of prepositions, postpositions and circumposi- tions, depending on the NL. For example, English or Italian have mainly prepositions while Japanese or Turkish have mainly postpositions. Thus, unlike other grammar formalisms, which are based on a single NL and then adapted mwnlibro others, adgrams are a cross-linguistic model since the be- migliotini.


The linguistic part presented in this dissertation is derived from re- search in the field of adposition by Fabrizio A. Pennacchietti for over 30 years. The present work aims to describe such a model in a strong formal way. Particular attention has been given to the definitions of the technical linguistic terms, as they have been used in a rather peculiar way. Readers proficient in linguistics might be annoyed at such precision, even pedantic; please be patient, this dissertation should be readable by computer scientists, who are not familiar with linguistic tech- nicalities.

The migliorihi advice applies to computer scientists when I introduce the computational formalisms: The dissertation is structured as manlbiro. In the first part, the general model of adgrams is presented, in the second and third parts a concrete instance of it will be given.

Therefore, the first part is more oriented to the philosophical and linguistic manlibrro of adgrams, while afterwards the for- mal model is presented in a linguistic instance. I have chosen the Esperanto language as the first instance of adgrams, for many reasons which I will discuss later.

Introduction lation scenario, as I think that a reliable machine translation is the best way to prove manlibrro and cross-lingual validity of the underlying language models.

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Pennacchietti has enriched and refined his model extracting concepts and data from very different sources: I have grouped these sources in three major schools of linguistic research: This distinction does not mean that they do not have anything in common; I have grouped the various authors in these broad categories because I think it is the best way to present the literature under adpositional grammars.

A final proviso is needed before going on: Hereafter, ideas may or may not be shared by Majlibro, Benini, or whoever. Adpositional grammars are formal Each adgram encapsulates the language model in a self-contained system, i. Most probably, grammar becomes automatised in learning through frequency of un successful use of linguistic patterns, so to build syntagms and paradigms through contrastive collocation see details be- low about these terms ; however, this dissertation does not deal with is- sues about NL acquisition, so NLs are fictitiously considered as already acquired.

From a philosoph- ical perspective, I agree with Chomsky about the belief that there exists an inbuilt structure in the mind which constrains linguistic variability. Ad- grams aim exactly to describe this kind of constrictions.

An immediate corollary of what said is that here NLs are neither approached as observed behaviours nor investigated in their sociolinguistic dimensions.

First, the primitive categories of functions normally imgliorini in the chomskyan tradition, e. In contrast, adgrams aim to strictly adhere to the morpho- logical entities that are visible manlubro linguistic productions. I will refer to this principle as the principle of linguistic adherence. Adgrams will give ac- count directly of the logic underlying the production of morphemes in a sentence and their collocation see below for details.

In NLs like English or Italian, these phenom- ena are marked migliorihi a different collocation pattern or a specific morpheme devoted to mark the phenomenon itself.

Therefore, as the reader will see from chapter 2 onwards, adtrees are quite unlike any other linguistic tree published until now. I am deeply convinced that nat- ural language engineering is, or should be, a testbed of general linguistic theory and formal NL descriptions — in brief, language models. In my view, language models should have cross-linguistic validity miggliorini should al- ways be tested with a formal model that can be run on a computer — per- manlivro it is the only testbed we have.


It is important to note by now, that computational efficiency of the language model is not a theme in this dis- sertation. Cognitive linguists have a point claiming that for the most part our linguistic production is rarely compositional, i. Introduction in our mind well-practiced patterns of use both at morphosyntactic and semantic levels. We learn to play an instrument or to drive in a similar way: With practice, the sequence of applied rules become automatised, and performance becomes rapid and far less prone to errors.

Something similar happens in learning NLs: This means that the rules per se can be computa- tionally inefficient. For the purposes of this dissertation, adgrams describe fine-grained rules as if there is no storage and recall of results.

The goal here is to demonstrate that a concrete adgram, which is an instance of the language model, is formal, computable, and linguistically feasible. Another important limitation of the current model of adgrams is quot- ing and name-entity recognition, which I see as two faces of the same coin. Non-determinism is simulated by the backtracking primitive well-known migliorkni Prolog, although the formalism is closer to the so-called logical frameworks, e.

A fully-developed abstract machine is built on the primitive abstract ma- chine. The lexical analyser parse the text in input and gives the appropriate adpositional tree s in output. See chapter 7 for details. If we take the philosophical position of nominalism in its extreme form, linguistic entities are merely a matter of linguistic convention: Note that the original position of Ferdinand de Saussure, the father of modern linguistics and structuralism, is essentially nominalist: In other words, categories exist in- dependently of NLs and their users.

This position is called realism. The fallacy of realism is revealed by the argument of the multiplicity of NLs: In fact, the English word blue is of German origin.

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Even if the inventory of phonemes of a given NL is limited and can be reasonably identified, the inventory of a priori semantic categories can not. This fact undermines the very foundations of radical nominalism.

Things go even worse when we accept the argument of multiplicity of natural languages: Of course, these problems vanish if the aim of linguistics is all and only describing each language system as a monad, i. In its extreme form, nominalism transforms itself into relativism, a position ascribed to Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf: There is a third way, other than nominalism and realism, namely con- ceptualism.

Cognitive linguistics take as a start point the philosophical position of conceptualism: Introduction sides in our mind concepts. Conceptualism has a number of advan- tages, and that is why I take this philosophical position for adgrams. First, it solves the problem of entities which have linguistic existence but not a real one, such as the mythical chimera: Second, this position lets people share concepts: Adgrams are cognitive in the sense that they are indebted to some re- sults found in cognitive linguistics.

Cognitive linguistics has for the last 25 years been an alternative to the Chomskyan approach.