Timeline: Iran-US relations | News | Al Jazeera
Since cutting ties in , U.S.-Iran dialogue has been sparse and largely fruitless. The world has changed dramatically since the Islamic Revolution gave rise to a religious government in Tehran and ruptured U.S.-Iranian relations. ST. PETERSBURG, Fla. -- To wrap your head around the United States' relationship with Iran, you need to go all the way back to when.
By the late 19th century, the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions had opened new stations in cities across northern Iranfrom Tehran to Mashhad.
American diplomatic relations with Persia were established in After the First World War, Presbyterian schools for both boys and girls proliferated, the most famous of which were the American College of Tehran for boys, established inand Iran Bethel School for girls. Morgan Shustera distinguished career civil servant, was appointed by Persia in February He arrived in Tehran in May, bringing with him four other Americans.
The mission was a failure, lasting only eight months, and, unsurprisingly, was adroitly sabotaged by the combined efforts of British and Russian diplomats in Tehran.
Iran–United States relations - Wikipedia
American William Morgan Shuster, treasurer-general of Persia. With none of the colonialist baggage associated with the two European superpowers, America was turned to, almost as a last resort, to fix what ailed Iran. Riza Shah father of the last shah appointed an American, Arthur C. Millspaughas the administrator-general of the finances of Persia. When Millspaugh arrived in Tehran ina newspaper editorial addressed him with these words: If you fail, the patient will die. If you succeed, the patient will live.
Of course, not every Iranian-American interaction during this period was positive. Riza Shah used the episode to crack down on dissidents and impose strict controls on public gatherings.
Even though the overthrow of Mossadegh damaged Iranian trust in America, the years just prior to Iranian revolution in saw the number of Iranian students in the United States steadily rise. The Islamic revolutionaries wished to extradite and execute the ousted Shah, and Carter refused to give him any further support or help return him to power. The Shah, suffering from terminal cancerrequested entry into the United States for treatment.
The American embassy in Tehran opposed the request, as they were intent on stabilizing relations between the new interim revolutionary government of Iran and the United States. Iranians' suspicion that the Shah was actually trying to conspire against the Iranian Revolution grew; thus, this incident was often used by the Iranian revolutionaries to justify their claims that the former monarch was an American puppet, and this led to the storming of the American embassy by radical students allied with the Khomeini faction.
Bush and other VIPs wait to welcome the former hostages to Iran home On 4 Novemberthe revolutionary group Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Lineangered that the recently deposed Shah had been allowed into the United States, occupied the American embassy in Tehran and took American diplomats hostage.
The 52 American diplomats were held hostage for days. In Iran, the incident was seen by many as a blow against American influence in Iran and the liberal-moderate interim government of Prime Minister Mehdi Bazarganwho opposed the hostage taking and resigned soon after. Some Iranians were concerned that the United States may have been plotting another coup against their country in from the American embassy.
The crisis ended with the signing of the Algiers Accords in Algeria on January 19, On January 20,the date the treaty was signed, the hostages were released. American contact with Iran through The Hague covers only legal matters. The crisis led to lasting economic and diplomatic damage. On 7 AprilCarter severed diplomatic relations between Iran and the United States and they have been frozen ever since. Instead, parts of the embassy complex were turned into an anti-American museum, while other parts became offices for student organizations.
However, Iran later chose Pakistan to be its protecting power in the United States.
Iran–United States relations
Economic consequences of the Iran hostage crisis[ edit ] See also: Sanctions against Iran Families wait for the former hostages to disembark the plane. Before the Revolution, the United States was Iran's foremost economic and military partner.
This facilitated the modernization of Iran's infrastructure and industry, with as many as 30, American expatriates residing in the country in a technical, consulting, or teaching capacity. Some analysts argue that the transformation may have been too rapid, fueling unrest and discontent among an important part of the population in the country and leading to the Revolution in According to American officials, most of those were released in as part of the deal to release the hostages.
Commercial relations between Iran and the United States are restricted by American sanctions and consist mainly of Iranian purchases of food, spare parts, and medical products as well as American purchases of carpets and food. Sanctions originally imposed in by President Bill Clinton were renewed by President Bush, who cited the "unusual and extraordinary threat" to American national security posed by Iran.
The executive orders prohibit American companies and their foreign subsidiaries from conducting business with Iran, while banning any "contract for the financing of the development of petroleum resources located in Iran". The ILSA was renewed for five more years in Congressional bills signed in extended and added provisions to the act; on September 30,the act was renamed the Iran Sanctions Act ISAas it no longer applied to Libya, and extended until December 31, Reagan administration[ edit ] See also: United States support for Iraq during the Iran—Iraq war American intelligence and logistical support played a crucial role in arming Iraq in the Iran—Iraq Waralthough Bob Woodward states that the United States gave information to both sides, hoping "to engineer a stalemate".
Bush authorized the sale to Iraq of numerous dual-use items, including poisonous chemicals and deadly biological viruses, such as anthrax and bubonic plague.
He calls for dialogue with the American people in an interview on US network television. Clinton extends sanctions on US oil contracts with Iran after Iranian reformists win in the general election. Madeleine Albright, the then US secretary of state, meets with Kamal Kharrazi, the then Iranian foreign minister, at the UN for the first such talks since the Iranian revolution in The US accuses Iran of being directly involved in the bombing of an American military base in Saudi Arabia, evoking an angry rejection of the charges by Tehran.
Iran's first nuclear reactor at Bushehr begins construction with the help of Russian technicians, prompting strong objections from the US. The US accuses Iran of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme with two nuclear sites under construction at Natanz and Arak. The International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA concludes that the nuclear sites at Natanz and Arak are indeed under construction but designed solely to provide fuel for future power plants.
Iran agrees to tougher UN inspections of its nuclear facilities and to suspend its uranium enrichment. The IAEA reports that Iran admitted to producing plutonium but cites no evidence of trying to build a nuclear bomb.
After earthquakes kill up to 50, people in the Iranian city of Bam the US sends humanitarian aid to help. Iran agrees to a European offer stipulating that Iran suspend its uranium enrichment in exchange for trade concessions. Bush backpedals from his usual hard-line stance and says the US will back the EU negotiating track, offering economic incentives in exchange for Iran abandoning its nuclear aspirations.
Bush also announces the lifting of a decade-long block on Iranian membership of the World Trade Organisation. The US says that Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the newly-elected Iranian president, was a leader behind the hostage crisis in but is uncertain of his role in taking the American prisoners.
Washington denies a claim reported in The New Yorker suggesting that the US may be planning a tactical nuclear strike against Iranian underground nuclear sites. Iran complains to the UN and says it will retaliate against any attack. Ahmadinejad reiterates Iran's peaceful pursuit of nuclear technology. Iran offers to hold direct talks with the US on Iraq but later withdraws its offer.
Iran's parliament threatens to withdraw from the Non-Proliferation Treaty if pressure over its nuclear programme escalates following a draft resolution at the UN Security Council.
The US, later that month, offers to join EU nations in direct talks if Iran agrees to suspend uranium enrichment.
A resolution is passed by the Security Council imposing sanctions on Iran due to its nuclear programme.