How the Potato Changed the World | History | Smithsonian
Today the potato is the fifth most important crop worldwide, after wheat, corn, rice . (Andean farmers today produce modern, Idaho-style breeds for the market, but .. In , potato blight wiped out most of the tomatoes and potatoes on the. Spooner et al.  used plastid DNA restriction site data and morphological data to reinvestigate the relationships of potatoes, tomatoes (former. What do tomatoes, potatoes, and peppers have in common? One obvious answer is that these are all food plants. We can grow these plants in.
Some of the more common autoimmune diseases include inflammatory bowel disease IBDceliac diseaseand rheumatoid arthritis. Eating nightshades may worsen these conditions because the natural chemicals contained within them may stimulate the immune response.
This is a strict diet which eliminates nightshades and other foods considered to irritate the gut, including alcohol and legumes. In this study, people with Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis reported reduced symptoms and improved quality of life after 3 weeks on the AIP diet.
What to know about nightshade allergies
Solanine and joint pain Many people believe that eating nightshades can cause inflammation, therefore making inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis worse. However, the Arthritis Foundation says that there is no evidence for this and that people with arthritis should eat nightshade fruits and vegetables as part of a healthful diet. Lectins and leaky gut syndrome Nightshades also contain a type of protein called lectins.
Lectins may damage the intestinal barrier, causing a condition known as 'leaky gut syndrome. Summary Nightshade allergies are incredibly rare, affecting a small percentage of the population.
They can, however, be very problematic for those affected. At present, the best way to diagnose a nightshade allergy or intolerance is to remove these foods from the diet temporarily.
Domestication and Breeding of Tomatoes: What have We Gained and What Can We Gain in the Future?
Treatment entails substituting nightshades with alternative fruits and vegetables. The extent to which the chemicals found in nightshade foods affect pre-existing medical conditions is still not clear. It is possible that nightshades may worsen symptoms in certain individuals.
Chromosome pairing relationships in interspecific hybrids and in polyploid potato species have been interpreted by genome formulae, although authors gave them different symbols. According to these hypotheses, five genomes A, B, C, D and P are recognized in the tuber-bearing species of section Petota. Genome symbol E was given to species of section Etuberosum based on the specificity of meiotic behavior and sterility of their diploid hybrids with the A-genome tuber-bearing potato species [ 710 ].
Symbol L was proposed for tomato section Lycopersicon on the bases of preferential chromosome pairing and clear-cut parental genome discrimination by using genomic in situ hybridization GISH and LLEE or artificial amphidiploids of tomato and S. Wild and cultivated potatoes Solanum L. Petota see Additional file 1 for authors of taxa grow from the southwestern United States to southern Chile.
Hawkes [ 5 ] recognized species in section Petota, and divided it into 19 tuber-bearing and two non-tuber-bearing series. He further divided these 19 tuber-bearing series into two superseries based on corolla morphology superseries Stellata with stellate corollas and superseries Rotata with rotate corollas.
He distinguished "primitive" and "advanced" forms of each superseries and recognized four groups based on morphological characters: He hypothesized the evolution of the advanced Rotata morphology from primitive Stellata-like ancestors. He postulated that the ancestral wild potato species were diploid, possessed B genomes, produced white stellate corollas, and originated in North or Central America in the late Cretaceous to Eocene eras.Grafted Tomato to Potato Harvest
Subsequent dispersal of one or more of these species to South America took place before the sinking of the Central American land bridge during the mid-Eocene to Pliocene eras, gradually leading to the evolution of species with A genomes and rotate corollas. He also postulated that when the bridge was restored in Pliocene times, a remigration of one or more of these diverged A genome species back into North and Central America allowed the hybridization and allopolyploidization with the native Mexican or Central American B genome taxa.
This produced the tetraploid members of series Longipedicellata AB.
Nightshade allergy: Symptoms, diagnosis, and intolerances
A second, comparatively recent migration of a second species S. In North and Central America are also another group of allopolyploids, members of series Conicibaccata ACbut only series Longipedicellata was designated AB, and the source of the C and D genome donors of series Conicibaccata and Demissa is unknown.
So it seems unlikely that the timing for the events proposed by Hawkes really took place in the Cretaceous — Eocene eras but the events are still possible.
The latest taxonomic interpretation [ 13 ] recognized fewer species and predicted even further reductions in species. Their results confirmed placement of all members of Hawkes's [ 5 ] tuber-bearing species into sect.