The relationship between economics and politics | Economics Help
RELATIONS OF ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS plane may crash, or the world may come to an end; these stochastic elements. Global political economy is a field of study that deals with the Ricardo explicitly added the gains deriving from a system of free trade built. Does development and modernization of countries act in parallel with the institutionalization, emancipation and democratization of economics and politics in.
If you set different economists to report on the desirability of income tax cuts for the rich, their policy proposals are likely to reflect their political preferences.Economic Systems & the Labor Market: Crash Course Sociology #29
You can always find some evidence to support the benefits of tax cuts, you can always find some evidence to support the benefits of higher tax. They may produce a paper that perhaps challenges their previous views. Despite their preferences, they may find there is no case for rail privatisation, or perhaps they find tax cuts do actually increase economic welfare. However, for a politician, they can use those economists and economic research which backs their political view.
There were just as many economists suggesting this was not a good idea, but economists can be promoted by their political sponsors. In the US, the Paul Ryan budget proposals were welcomed by many Republicans because they promised tax cuts for better off, cutting welfare benefits and balancing the budget. Many economists may be generally supportive of the EU and European co-operation, but the evidence from the Euro single currency is that it caused many economic problems of low growth, deflation and trade imbalances.
Economics needs political support If you study economics, you can make quite a convincing case for a Pigovian tax — a tax which makes people pay the full social cost of the good, and not just the private cost.
This principle of making the polluter pay provides a case for Carbon Taxcongestion charges, alcohol tax, and tobacco tax e. However, whether these policies get implemented depends on whether there is political support for them. For example, a congestion charge was proposed for Manchester, but it was very heavily defeated in a referendum. A new tax is rarely popular. The list goes on and on. It makes sense, then, that every country has its own way of accomplishing these basic needs.
Of course, some are more successful than others. But some similarities between governments will surely exist as well. For example, more than one country has thought to build strong armies and navies. Likewise, try to think of different ways that countries can protect citizens from one another.
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Some commonalties will surely appear — police forces, crime prevention, putting criminals in jail, passing laws that define what is a crime and what is not. Again, governments have different ways to accomplish this end. Some allow more individual freedoms than others, some will have national police forces, and others will organize protection on the local level.
As modern governments have taken on more responsibilities, such as regulating the economy and providing social services, the possibilities for different government structures and functions increase.
Purposes of Economic Systems Economic systems provide needs for citizens by answering several questions: What resources does the country have, and what can be produced from them? How should goods and services be produced from the available resources? A public choice mechanism for law-making, establishing rules, norms and standards and levying taxes.
The scarcity problemfor example, requires answers to basic questions, such as what to produce, how to produce it and who gets what is produced. An economic system is a way of answering these basic questions and different economic systems answer them differently. Many different objectives may be seen as desirable for an economy, like efficiencygrowthliberty and equality.
Economies that combine private ownership with market allocation are called "market capitalism" and economies that combine private ownership with economic planning are labelled "command capitalism" or dirigisme. Likewise, systems that mix public or cooperative ownership of the means of production with economic planning are called "socialist planned economies" and systems that combine public or cooperative ownership with markets are called "market socialism".
This leads some economists to categorize, for example, the Soviet Union's economy as state capitalism based on the analysis that the working class was exploited by the party leadership. Instead of looking at nominal ownership, this perspective takes into account the organizational form within economic enterprises. The means of production are primarily owned by private enterprises and decisions regarding production and investment are determined by private owners in capital markets.
Capitalist systems range from laissez-fairewith minimal government regulation and state enterprise, to regulated and social market systems, with the aims of ameliorating market failures see economic intervention or supplementing the private marketplace with social policies to promote equal opportunities see welfare staterespectively. In socialist economic systems socialismproduction for use is carried out; decisions regarding the use of the means of production are adjusted to satisfy economic demand; and investment is determined through economic planning procedures.
The relationship between economics and politics
There is a wide range of proposed planning procedures and ownership structures for socialist systems, with the common feature among them being the social ownership of the means of production. This might take the form of public ownership by all of the society, or ownership cooperatively by their employees. A socialist economic system that features social ownership, but that it is based on the process of capital accumulation and utilization of capital markets for the allocation of capital goods between socially-owned enterprises falls under the subcategory of market socialism.