Interaction between Nutrition and Infection | Clinical Infectious Diseases | Oxford Academic
Interactions between Nutrition and. Infection in the Developing World. Keith P. West, Jr., DrPH, MPH. Johns Hopkins University. Beisel meer-bezoekers.info of infection on nutritional status: Concluding comments and summary. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 30 (), pp. Google Scholar. 8. In this review, the mentioned aspects of the relationship between nutrition and infections are discussed. Furthermore, the relationship between.
It is now possible to attenuate the severity of and possibly prevent these consequences with prophylaxis of vitamin A and Zinc supplementation.
This has been found quite useful in acute respiratory infection and acute diarrheal diseases. From the foregoing, without doubt, either of infection or malnutrition can predispose to the other 3. This is a vicious cycle which can be broken. The link obviously is immunological4,5,6. The problem is predominantly one of the challenges of under- five- children in the developing countries.
Enhancing the nutritional status of the children and implementing the immunization programmes will be a great step in tackling the challenges. Other aspects of infection control cannot be ignored. Water and sanitation, including availability of potable water, proper disposal of refuse and human waste, appropriate housing and food and nutrition security will go a long way to be part of the solution3. Exclusive breast feeding for the first six months of life and provision of appropriate complementary food while still breast feeding are an indispensible activity that has been shown to help protecting against infection and reducing morbidity and mortality7.
Conclusion Nutrition depletion leading to malnutrition impairs body resistance to infection. Conversely, infections no matter how mild have significant effect on nutritional status. The mechanism of this vicious cycle has been elucidated to a large extent. The various arms of the defence system against infection require adequate nutrition for optimal function. In nutritional depletion this protection is impaired. The way out is obvious- enhanced nutrition and improved immunological status.
References Guoya Wu, Fullar W. Meininger and Thomas E. Maternal Nutrition and Fetal Development. Maternal and Child Undernutrition: Published online DO1: Second series of five papers P.
Volume 29; June The history of nutrition: Interaction between nutrition and infection in the developing world. School of Public Health. Complementary feeding of young children in developing countries: Undernutrition is not necessarily caused by a lack of food, and it is not unique to poor populations.
Even in rich nations, there are malnourished people. Malnutrition is the primary cause of immunodeficiency worldwide, with infants, children, adolescents, and the elderly most affected.
There is a strong relationship between malnutrition and infection and infant mortality, because poor nutrition leaves children underweight, weakened, and vulnerable to infections, primarily because of epithelial integrity and inflammation figure 1 [ 7 ].
In our understanding of this interaction between infection and malnutrition, it is important to remember that a decreased immune function is not always a defective one, and many indicators of nutritional status are not reliable during infection.
Until that time, it was believed that protein deficiency kwashiorkormore than total calorie deficiency marasmuswas the predominant basis of nutrition problems, because severe protein deficiency bore a definite relationship to antibody formation and the development of the immune system in infants and children.
- The relationship between nutrition, infection, and immunity.
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- Nutrition and Infectious Diseases
The focus then changed to energy, with the assumption that if a person consumed enough kilocalories of energy, all nutrient needs would be met. On the basis of work done in Central America, Mexico, Chile, and South Africa, research after on the interaction of nutrition, immunity, and infection advanced with the work of Keusch [ 10 ] and Scrimshaw et al.
This suggested that a dual attack was necessary. In the s, the metabolic consequences of infection and the relationship between malnutrition and cell-mediated immunity were initially elucidated [ 12—16 ]. Consequently, advances between and brought improved tools to assess immune function, the complement system, mucosal immunity, and cell-mediated immune responses.
Human studies and better animal models led to the recognition that malnutrition is not unique to children.
The Cycle of Malnutrition and Infection Malnutrition can make a person more susceptible to infection, and infection also contributes to malnutrition, which causes a vicious cycle figure 3. An inadequate dietary intake leads to weight loss, lowered immunity, mucosal damage, invasion by pathogens, and impaired growth and development in children. A sick person's nutrition is further aggravated by diarrhea, malabsorption, loss of appetite, diversion of nutrients for the immune response, and urinary nitrogen loss, all of which lead to nutrient losses and further damage to defense mechanisms.
These, in turn, cause reduced dietary intake. In addition, fever increases both energy and micronutrient requirements. Malaria and influenza, for example, have mortality rates proportionate to the degree of malnutrition [ 17 ]. The factors responsible are household food availability, personal health, health services, and the psychosocial care environment figure 4.
Nutrition and Infectious Diseases | Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA)
The existing primary health care infrastructure includes the types of services provided and the accessibility of health care distance and affordability. Access to health services and environmental health conditions relate to essential drugs and immunizations, safe water, sanitation, and housing.
Insufficient or delayed treatment also prolongs disease occurrence and severity. Figure 4 The multifactorial causes of malnutrition and infection Figure 4 View large Download slide The multifactorial causes of malnutrition and infection Many of the basic causes of malnutrition also emerge at the national and international levels and relate to the availability and control of food.
The political ideology of the ruling government and its commitment to preventing infectious disease and malnutrition affects the health of its entire population. Famine, for example, is a disaster caused not only by agricultural failures or natural disasters but too often by politics. Sen [ 19 ] has shown that political factors are responsible for nearly all famines. Even with the droughts in Ethiopia and West Bengal, it was government policy, not agricultural failure, that was responsible for the human crisis [ 19 ].
Food supply, underlying health, and health care interact in important ways, and their combined effect is synergistic. The underlying causes may also change with the seasons.
Rural households, for example, may experience an annual hunger season. Diarrheal diseases and malaria are more prevalent during rainy seasons, and respiratory tract infections are more prevalent during cold weather. The effects are poor growth, impaired intellect, and increased mortality and susceptibility to infection.
Nestlé Nutrition Institute
Micronutrients have a relationship to antibody formation and the development of the immune system. These ill effects are preventable by supplements, fortification, and diet change. The Copenhagen Consensus [ 20 ] project on hunger and malnutrition even suggested that efforts to provide vitamin A, iron, iodine, and zinc generates higher returns than do trade liberalization or malaria, water, and sanitation programs. Vitamin A maintains the integrity of the epithelium in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.
The World Health Organization estimates that, worldwide, — million children are vitamin A deficient, causing 1. Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of diarrhea, Plasmodium falciparum malaria, measles, and overall mortality. Although we have come a long way since then, inScrimshaw et al. Vitamin A deficiency and measles, which is estimated to kill 2 million children per year, are closely linked. Measles in a child is more likely to exacerbate any existing nutritional deficiency, and children who are already deficient in vitamin A are at much greater risk of dying from measles.
Postmeasles diarrhea is particularly difficult to treat and has a very high mortality [ 22 ]. Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of developing respiratory disease and chronic ear infections [ 22 ]. Vitamin A supplementation sustains gut integrity, lowers the incidence of respiratory tract infections, reduces mortality from diarrhea, and enhances immunity.