Apaches - History, Modern era, The first apaches in america
The Apache–Mexico Wars, or the Mexican Apache Wars, refer to the conflicts between Spanish or Mexican forces and the Apache peoples. The wars began in . The Navajo were a predacious tribe of some 50 clans who, frequently with their Apache allies, regularly pillaged the Pueblo and later the Spanish and Mexican. The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the "Navajo and Apache relationships west of the Rio Grande", El Palacio, 70 (3).
An influx of gold miners into the Santa Rita Mountains led to conflict with the Apache. This period is sometimes called the Apache Wars. United States' concept of a reservation had not been used by the Spanish, Mexicans or other Apache neighbors before. Reservations were often badly managed, and bands that had no kinship relationships were forced to live together.
No fences existed to keep people in or out.
It was not uncommon for a band to be given permission to leave for a short period of time. Other times a band would leave without permission, to raid, return to their homeland to forage, or to simply get away. The military usually had forts nearby. Their job was keeping the various bands on the reservations by finding and returning those who left.
The reservation policies of the United States produced conflict and war with the various Apache bands who left the reservations for almost another quarter century. Warfare between the Apache peoples and Euro-Americans has led to a stereotypical focus on certain aspects of Apache cultures.
These have often been distorted through misunderstanding of their cultures, as noted by anthropologist Keith Basso: Of the hundreds of peoples that lived and flourished in native North America, few have been so consistently misrepresented as the Apacheans of Arizona and New Mexico.
Glorified by novelists, sensationalized by historians, and distorted beyond credulity by commercial film makers, the popular image of 'the Apache' — a brutish, terrifying semi-human bent upon wanton death and destruction — is almost entirely a product of irresponsible caricature and exaggeration. Indeed, there can be little doubt that the Apache has been transformed from a native American into an American legend, the fanciful and fallacious creation of a non-Indian citizenry whose inability to recognize the massive treachery of ethnic and cultural stereotypes has been matched only by its willingness to sustain and inflate them.
At the orders of the Indian Commissioner, L. The trek resulted in the loss of several hundred lives. The people were held there in internment for 25 years while white settlers took over their land.
Navajo - Wikipedia
Only a few hundred ever returned to their lands. At the San Carlos reservation, the Buffalo soldiers of the 9th Cavalry Regiment - replacing the 8th Cavalry who were being stationed to Texas - guarded the Apaches from Defeat Most United States' histories of this era report that the final defeat of an Apache band took place when 5, US troops forced Geronimo 's group of 30 to 50 men, women and children to surrender on September 4,at Skeleton CanyonArizona.
Many books were written on the stories of hunting and trapping during the late 19th century. Many of these stories involve Apache raids and the failure of agreements with Americans and Mexicans. In the post-war era, the US government arranged for Apache children to be taken from their families for adoption by white Americans in assimilation programs. An extended family generally consisted of a husband and wife, their unmarried children, their married daughters, their married daughters' husbands, and their married daughters' children.
Thus, the extended family is connected through a lineage of women who live together that is, matrilocal residenceinto which men may enter upon marriage leaving behind his parents' family. When a daughter was married, a new dwelling was built nearby for her and her husband. Among the Navajo, residence rights are ultimately derived from a head mother.
Although the Western Apache usually practiced matrilocal residence, sometimes the eldest son chose to bring his wife to live with his parents after marriage. All tribes practiced sororate and levirate marriages. Apache Indian girl carrying an olla a water basket on her head, ca. The degree of avoidance differed in different Apache groups. The most elaborate system was among the Chiricahua, where men had to use indirect polite speech toward and were not allowed to be within visual sight of the wife's female relatives, whom he had to avoid.
His female Chiricahua relatives through marriage also avoided him. Several extended families worked together as a "local group", which carried out certain ceremonies, and economic and military activities.
Political control was mostly present at the local group level. Local groups were headed by a chiefa male who had considerable influence over others in the group due to his effectiveness and reputation. The chief was the closest societal role to a leader in Apache cultures. The office was not hereditaryand the position was often filled by members of different extended families.
The chief's leadership was only as strong as he was evaluated to be—no group member was ever obliged to follow the chief. The Western Apache criteria for evaluating a good chief included: Many Apache peoples joined together several local groups into " bands ".
Band organization was strongest among the Chiricahua and Western Apache, while among the Lipan and Mescalero, it was weak. The Navajo did not organize local groups into bands, perhaps because of the requirements of the sheepherding economy.
However, the Navajo did have "the outfit", a group of relatives that was larger than the extended family, but not as large as a local group community or a band. On the larger level, the Western Apache organized bands into what Grenville Goodwin called "groups". He reported five groups for the Western Apache: The Jicarilla grouped their bands into " moieties ", perhaps influenced by the example of the northeastern Pueblo.
The Western Apache and Navajo also had a system of matrilineal " clans " that were organized further into phratries perhaps influenced by the western Pueblo. The notion of " tribe " in Apache cultures is very weakly developed; essentially it was only a recognition "that one owed a modicum of hospitality to those of the same speech, dress, and customs.
For example, the Lipan once fought against the Mescalero.
Kinship systems The Apache tribes have two distinctly different kinship term systems: The Western Apache system differs slightly from the other two systems, and it has some similarities to the Navajo system. The Navajo system is more divergent among the four, having similarities with the Chiricahua-type system.
The Lipan and Plains Apache systems are very similar. Furthermore, the grandparent terms are reciprocal, that is, a grandparent will use the same term to refer to their grandchild in that relationship.
Chiricahua cousins are not distinguished from siblings through kinship terms. Thus, the same word will refer to either a sibling or a cousin there are not separate terms for parallel-cousin and cross-cousin. Additionally, the terms are used according to the sex of the speaker unlike the English terms brother and sister: Two different words are used for each parent according to sex: Likewise, there are two words for a parent's child according to sex: A parent's siblings are classified together regardless of sex: Jicarilla Unlike the Chiricahua system, the Jicarilla have only two terms for grandparents according to sex: They do not have separate terms for maternal or paternal grandparents.
The terms are also used of a grandparent's siblings according to sex. These terms are not reciprocal.
There is a single word for grandchild regardless of sex: There are two terms for each parent. These terms also refer to that parent's same-sex sibling: Additionally, there are two terms for a parent's opposite-sex sibling depending on sex: Two terms are used for same-sex and opposite-sex siblings.
These terms are also used for parallel-cousins: These two terms can also be used for cross-cousins. There are also three sibling terms based on the age relative to the speaker: Additionally, there are separate words for cross-cousins: A parent's child is classified with their same-sex sibling's or same-sex cousin's child: There are different words for an opposite-sex sibling's child: Housing Frame of Apache wickiup All people in the Apache tribe lived in one of three types of houses.
The first of which is the teepeefor those who lived in the plains. Another type of housing is the wickiupan 8-foot-tall 2. If a family member lived in a wickiup and they died, the wickiup would be burned. The final housing is the hoganan earthen structure in the desert area that was good for cool keeping in the hot weather of northern Mexico.
Below is a description of Chiricahua wickiups recorded by anthropologist Morris Opler: The home in which the family lives is made by the women and is ordinarily a circular, dome-shaped brush dwelling, with the floor at ground level. It is seven feet high at the center and approximately eight feet in diameter. To build it, long fresh poles of oak or willow are driven into the ground or placed in holes made with a digging stick.
These poles, which form the framework, are arranged at one-foot intervals and are bound together at the top with yucca-leaf strands. Over them a thatching of bundles of big bluestem grass or bear grass is tied, shingle style, with yucca strings. A smoke hole opens above a central fireplace.
A hide, suspended at the entrance, is fixed on a cross-beam so that it may be swung forward or backward. The doorway may face in any direction. For waterproofing, pieces of hide are thrown over the outer hatching, and in rainy weather, if a fire is not needed, even the smoke hole is covered.RACING the PAST :: Voices from the Apache Rez
In warm, dry weather much of the outer roofing is stripped off. It takes approximately three days to erect a sturdy dwelling of this type. These houses are 'warm and comfortable, even though there is a big snow. Chiricahua medicine man in wickiup with family The woman not only makes the furnishings of the home but is responsible for the construction, maintenance, and repair of the dwelling itself and for the arrangement of everything in it.
She provides the grass and brush beds and replaces them when they become too old and dry However, formerly 'they had no permanent homes, so they didn't bother with cleaning. Said a Central Chiricahua informant.
Both the teepee and the oval-shaped house were used when I was a boy. The oval hut was covered with hide and was the best house. The more well-to-do had this kind. The tepee type was just made of brush. The bad conditions complicate the foundation of American Indian businesses like casinos and tourism for some tribes, too, because they are not within easy reach from the next big city and the potential customers.
The government in the s promised high financial and economic rewards to the tribes who would agree to the storage of toxic and radioactive waste on their reservation land for several decades.
Many American Indians mainly those of the poorer reservations like the Mescalero-Apache were tempted by the money and were not aware of the consequences for their health, their environment and life base, which makes the barriers to the reservations' development even more unbreakable. Lack of education and poverty The percentage of citizens with less than a High School graduate was leveled Furthermore the reservation schools have the highest rate of teacher turnover and they often lack the means for school supply and sufficient staff.
Even those Native Americans students who could attend secondary education are inhibited by bureaucracy and the great distances to the universities. This lack of formal education fuels other social problems like unemployment, poverty, teenage pregnancy, criminality and drug abuse and it forces the Native Americans to accept badly paid jobs.
Therefore an improve of their life standards is not easy since they are also inhibited by the costs for food which in reservations are absurdly enough higher than outside the reservations and the financial burdens especially on City Indians, such as high rents and taxes which they have to pay in full amount, unlike the Native Americans in the reservations.
Social challenges In the reservations but also outside the Native Americans have to deal with further worrying social developments: For those the confrontation with unemployment, environmental destruction, the decay of the reservations and the lack of positive future prospects and leisure time activities to distract them situation, are probably hard to bear. Caused or at least promoted by drug abuse, there is a lot of crime in the reservations and outside of which the American Indians especially children are victims and offenders especially young adults at the same rate: Domestic violence, rape, child abuse and child neglect are reported to take place very often in the reservations, with the estimated number of unknown cases being very high.
Furthermore in the recent years gang violence in the reservations has increased, fueled by weak law enforcement, youth unemployment and the lack of activities for young Indians and with the results of vandalism, theft, assaults also sexual and street fights. In fact the health conditions in the reservations are deplorable, anyhow: Native Americans are suffering of diabetes, alcoholism, tuberculosis and other health conditions and are dying at shocking rates.
The cases of asthma, heart failure, cancer and AIDS are also noticeable accumulated within American Indian communities unfortunately mostly among the elders and children and are out of all proportion to the inadequate health care system: Especially the malnutrition based diseases such as rickets and diabetes require expensive medical treatments like for example dialysis and therefore the federal health service in many reservations is overburdened.
Furthermore the consequences of pollution and contamination in some areas threaten the American Indian's health and life because toxic and radioactive traces are discovered in the drinking water, the soil, the nutrition and the bodies of the American Indians themselves. So an increase of cancer and deformity based deaths are caused by contacts with these dangerous substances. In general the central nervous system is affected and therefore these children suffer from epileptic attacks, speech disorders, learning difficulties, inhibited growth and deformed bodies and organs.
These symptoms can be suppressed by medical treatment, although there is no complete remedy. Mental health In many books and films about American Indians we are shown the sins and crimes committed by the white Immigrants, which are often hard to believe. Hence it appears likely that the present generation of American Indians are still full of sadness and horror about the past, like the descendants of the Jews.