Foreign relations of Iran - Wikipedia
Far from a monolithic relationship, Iran and the United States have spent as Iran and other countries, including China, North Korea and Libya. The foreign relations of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (–) underwent much fluctuation .. In , the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA) was enacted, seeking to penalize non-U.S. companies which . Peru became the first of several countries to sever diplomatic relations with Tripoli on 22 February , followed. The Baghdad government broke diplomatic relations with Libya on Wednesday to African country's support for Iran in the nearly five-year-old Iran-Iraq War. The Foreign Ministry said in a statement that Iraq will recall its.
These attempts to spread its Islamic revolution strained the country's relations with many of its Arab neighbours, and the extrajudicial execution of Iranian dissidents in Europe unnerved European nations, particularly France and Germany.
Training volunteers[ edit ] Arab and other Muslim volunteers who came to Iran were trained in camps run by the Revolutionary Guards. There were three primary bases in Tehran, and others in Ahvaz, Isfahan, Qom, Shiraz, and Mashad, and a further facility, converted innear the southern naval base at Bushire.
Nations with strong fundamentalist movements, such as Egypt and Algeriaalso began to mistrust Iran. With the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, Iran was thought to be supporting the creation of the Hizballah organization.
Furthermore, Iran went on to oppose the Arab—Israeli peace process, because it saw Israel as an illegal country. Iran—Iraq relations Relations with Iraq had never been good historically; however, they took a turn for the worse inwhen Iraq invaded Iran.
The stated reason for Iraq's invasion was the contested sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab waterway Arvand Rud in Persian. Other reasons, unstated, were probably more significant: Iran and Iraq had a history of interference in each other's affairs by supporting separatist movements, and although this interference had ceased since the Algiers Agreementafter the Revolution Iran resumed support for Kurdish guerrillas in Iraq.
Iran demanded the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Iranian territory and the return to the status quo ante for the Shatt al-Arab, as established under the Algiers Agreement.
Iran–Libya relations - Wikipedia
This period saw Iran become even more isolated, with virtually no allies. Neither nation had made any real gains in the war, which left one million dead and had a dramatic effect on the country's foreign policy. From this point on, the Islamic Republic recognized that it had no choice but to moderate its radical approach and rationalize its objectives. This was the beginning of what Anoushiravan Ehteshami calls the "reorientation phase" of Iranian foreign policy.
Pragmatism[ edit ] Like other revolutionary states, practical considerations have sometimes led the Islamic Republic to inconsistency and subordination of such ideological concerns as pan-Islamic solidarity.
One observer, Graham Fuller, has called the Islamic Republic "stunningly silent" about [Muslim] Chechens in [non-Muslim] Russiaor Uyghurs in China,  simply because the Iranian state has important strategic ties with both China and Russia that need to be preserved in the state interest. Iran has astonishingly even supported Christian Armenia against Shi'ite Azerbaijan and has been careful not to lend too much support to Islamic Tajiks in Tajikistanwhere the language is basically a dialect of Persian.
In this regard the Islamic Republic resembles another revolutionary state, the old Soviet Union.
I guess that the Saudis must have played a role too. I have said many times that Iran and Oman have agreed to construct the Iran-Oman-India natural gas pipeline, in order for India to obtain access to cheap natural gas while avoiding her rival Pakistan.
And that happens at a time the Saudis and the United Arab Emirates are already at war with the Iranians in Yemen, with the Iranians supporting the Shiite Houthi rebels. This solution is more advantageous for Qatar than for Iran, because Iran has the geographical advantage. For that to happen of course Turkey and Iran must first stop killing each other in Syria too. In Libya things were very complicated, and I discuss Libya in the next chapter.
Qaddafi, the Libyan socialist dictator, was a traditional enemy of the Arabs of the Persian Gulf, and even though an Arab he was a traditional Iranian ally i. However in the last decade there were many problems in the Libyan-Iranian relations. The problems between Qaddafi and Iran made it very hard to understand whether it was Iran or Saudi Arabia who was more eager to support the Islamist rebels who were fighting Qaddafi. At the following video you can see a confrontation between Qaddafi and the previous Saudi King, King Abdullah, during an Arab League meeting.
Qaddafi also says that the Saudis are capable to ally with the devil in order to save themselves. The Saudi King calls Qaddafi a liar, and tells him that his grave is in front of him. That was inand in the two men exchanged insults again during an Arab League summit. On the other hand Qaddafi was a traditional Iranian ally. Since the rise of the Iranian Islamists to power inand the overthrow of the pro-American Iranian monarch, Qaddafi and the Iranian Islamists were jointly fighting the Saudis.
Libya-Iran Foreign Relations
The Saudis produced large quantities of oil, keeping oil prices low. Moreover the Saudi oilfields are easy fields, and oil can be produced at very low costs in Saudi Arabia. I initially thought, but I was wrong, that the Iranians did not play a role in the toppling of Qaddafi, and they only hailed his assassination to strengthen their position in the post-Qaddafi Libya.
One of the problems between Qaddafi and Iran was that in Qaddafi and Sarkozy agreed that France would construct in Libya a plant for the production of nuclear energy. As you know the French are strong allies of the Arabs of the Persian Gulf, and the French have very problematic relations with the Turks and the Iranians.
I guess that after the agreement between Qaddafi and Sarkozy, Qaddafi must have promised that he would stop attacking the French in North Africa, and probably cooperate with the French against Islamists.
Remember that the French need the uranium of Niger, Mali and Chad, for their production of nuclear energy. The French cover most of their energy needs with electricity produced from nuclear energy.
The Iranians, together with their Chinese allies, want the uranium of North Africa too, and Qaddafi also wanted it, at least until the agreement with the French in was made. I guess things changed when Qaddafi made the agreement with the French inbecause the Frech would use a part of the African uranium for the production of nuclear energy in Libya.
Moreover, Qaddafi had very problematic relations with the strongest ally of Iran in Africa i. Map Libya and Sudan http: That was a great problem for China too, because China is the dominant player in the oil industry of Sudan and South Sudan.
The Arabs of Sudan lost their main source of revenue, and this probably played a role in their alliance with Saudi Arabia in Saudi Arabia exports oil from the red see too, through the East-West oil pipeline that ends at Yanbu Port.
The other oil exporting countries do not like that, because the huge Saudi production pushes oil prices downwards.
Foreign relations of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi
On the other hand the non-oil exporting Muslim countries always want a share of the Saudi oil profits in order not to support the Saudi socialists and Al Qaeda against the Saudi King. Map Oil Pipelines of Red Sea http: The Saudi East-West pipeline makes the Saudi exports to Europe and Africa cheaper, due to lower transportation costs, and it also gives Saudi Arabia an alternative when exporting oil to Asia.
For the time being the Saudis can feel secure at the Suez Canal, because they are allies with Egypt. Another problem between Qaddafi and Iran was that Qaddafi was in very bad terms with the Lebanese Shiite Hezbollah, which is mainly funded by Iran. Hezbollah had a strong presence in Sudan, and together with Sudan she supported the Islamists of Libya.
Qaddafi was supporting leftist terrorists in Lebanon against the Islamists of Hezbollah. The special forces of Sudan, Hezbollah and Qatar were among the first ones who set foot in Libya to support the Libyan rebels. In the meantime the communist and nazi propaganda says that the Arab Spring was simply a plot of the CIA, without even mentioning all this struggle in the corrupt Islamic countries.
Another problem could have been that when Qaddafi abandoned his nuclear program inhe gave his equipment to United States and England, essentially betraying Pakistan, which was selling nuclear technology and nuclear equipment in the black market. I guess that Pakistan and North Korea are also selling nuclear technology and nuclear equipment in the black market to Iran too.
Therefore betraying Pakistan could have been another thorn in the Qaddafi-Iranian relations. I must say that Russia is the county which has helps Iran to construct factories for the production of nuclear energy in Iran. But Russia would not be willing to help Iran obtain nuclear weapons, because Iran is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of oil and gas reserves. Therefore one day Russia might face the Iranian Islamists as enemies. Many times in the previous centuries Iran and Russia faced each other.
Russia might even have to face an alliance of Iranian and Turkish Islamists, because Turkey does not have oil and gas, and there is a lot of room for cooperation between the Iranians and the Turks.
Contrary to Iran, Pakistan does not have oil and gas, and it wants the oil and gas of Iran, and I do not thing that Pakistan would hesitate to sell nuclear technology to Iran in exchange for oil and gas. Obviously at the same time Pakistan would have to assure its traditional ally Saudi Arabia that it will sell her nuclear weapons if the Iranians ever threaten Saudi Arabia. I have to say that it is more likely to assume that the Iranians get their nuclear purchases in the black market from North Korea, which is a Chinese ally and does not have diplomatic relations with the United States.
The Iranians also tried to boost their nuclear technology from Argentina.Suspend Libya relations, US to Kenya
After the improvement in the US-Iranian relations the willingness of Iran to support Al Qaeda will be significantly reduced. On the other side the United States has improved its relations with India and has hurt its relations with Pakistan, a strong Chinese ally, and Pakistan has a lot of influence in some groups of the Taliban and Al Qaeda.
Therefore Pakistan can support terrorist attacks against the United States if their relations further deteriorate in the future. The Americans are already accusing the Pakistanis of supporting terrorist attacks against them. The only concern Iran had about the overturn of Qaddafi was to prevent actors supported by France and Saudi Arabia to take control of the post Qaddafi Libya, due to the dominant presence of the French air force, and the support France could provide to the rebels.
In the same way the Iranians and the Turks feared French influence in post-Qaddafi Libya, the French were fearing a post-Qaddafi Libya which would be controlled by the Turks or the Iranians. The main reason Nicola Sarkozy made the mistake to support the rebels was that the Iranians or the Turks would become the dominant force in the post Qaddafi Libya.
If the Turks and the Iranians were to become the dominant force in the post Qaddafi Libya they could create a hell for France in North Africa. Nicola Sarkozy had already lost in Tunisia and Egypt, where he supported the socialist dictators who were allies of France and Saudi Arabia i.
Ben Ali Tunisia and Mubarak Egypt. In the past I thought that the reason the French supported the rebels was because they wanted to gain influence in Libya at the expense of the Italians. It is true that Italy is the European country with the closest economic relations with Libya, and the same is true for France in Algeria, and there is definitely some kind of competition between the South European countries in North Africa.
But the main reason Sarkozy decide to help the rebels in Libya was his previous defeats in Tunisia and Egypt, where he supported the socialist dictators who were traditional allies of France. Unfortunately the Islamist and Communist propaganda is everywhere, and it is so heavily funded in Europe and the United States, and no matter how cautious you are it will get you at some point.
And if you are a silly silly this propaganda will convince you that everything that goes wrong in the world is because of greedy Europe and because of greedy United States. But I also have to say that Nicola Sarkozy made a great mistake by not supporting Qaddafi against the Islamists. He should have supported him, and then try to defend himself Against the propaganda war that would be launched against him by the Islamists in the Muslim World, and by the Communists in Europe and the United States.