Business-to-business - Wikipedia
International business refers to the trade of goods, services, technology, capital and/or knowledge across national borders and at a global level. It involves cross- border transactions of goods and services between two or .. Governments are removing international business restrictions. Institutions provide services to ease the. Business-to-government (B2G) or business-to-administration (B2A) is a derivative of B2B marketing and often referred to as a market definition of "public sector marketing" which encompasses marketing Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template. India–Italy relations refers to the international relations that exist between India and Italy. India . It seems to me that the majority of the Italian people love the iron government of Mussolini." Gandhi also hailed Italian companies invested € million in India in , and over €1 billion in As of December , Italy.
Millions of Nepalis have been living in India for long periods of time. Rather than establishing a security alliance or hosting a summit, the U. From both historical and political perspectives, every country in the East Asian region can be an opponent or a target to any other.
Therefore, it is comparatively difficult to construct multilateral alliances, which depend upon mutual reliance. An example is the " hub and spokes " reference, where the U. Firstly, the United States had existing and longer relations with countries in Europe. Thus it was easier for the United States to build and form this multilateral bond. Victor Cha states "Acheson argued that NATO was the product of a long, deliberative process, that West European powers had carefully developed their plan for collective defense before asking for U.
Because Europe is "connected", it is better for the security and economy. Whereas in East Asia, states are divided over a large space and is separated by large amounts of water and distance, making it a less admirable condition to form multilateral bonds for the United States. In East Asia, there are also a variety of regimes: Later inIndia conducted its first nuclear test, Smiling Buddhawhich was opposed by the US, however it also concluded that the test did not violate any agreement and proceeded with a June shipment of enriched uranium for the Tarapur reactor.
In the late s, with the anti-Soviet Janata Party leader Morarji Desai becoming the Prime Minister, India improved its relations with the US, now led by Jimmy Carterdespite the latter signing an order in barring nuclear material from being exported to India due to India's non-proliferation record. The Reagan Administration provided limited assistance to India. India sounded out Washington on the purchase of a range of US defence technology, including F-5 aircraft, super computers, night vision goggles and radars.
In Washington approved the supply of selected technology to India including gas turbines for naval frigates and engines for prototypes for India's light combat aircraft.
India - Wikipedia
There were also unpublicised transfers of technology, including the engagement of a US company, Continental Electronics, to design and build a new VLF communications station at Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, which was commissioned in the late s. The United States strongly condemned this testing, promised sanctions, and voted in favour of a United Nations Security Council Resolution condemning the tests.
President Bill Clinton imposed economic sanctions on India, including cutting off all military and economic aid, freezing loans by American banks to state-owned Indian companies, prohibiting loans to the Indian government for all except food purchases, prohibiting American aerospace technology and uranium exports to India, and requiring the US to oppose all loan requests by India to international lending agencies.
Only Japan joined the US in imposing direct sanctions, while most other nations continued to trade with India. The sanctions were soon lifted. Afterward, the Clinton administration and Prime Minister Vajpayee exchanged representatives to help rebuild relations. India emerged in the 21st century as increasingly vital to core US foreign policy interests.Centre State Financial Relations
India, a dominant actor in its region, and the home of more than one billion citizens, is now often characterised as a nascent Great Power and an "indispensable partner" of the US, one that many analysts view as a potential counterweight to the growing clout of China. In MarchU. Bush collaborated closely with India in controlling and policing the strategically critical Indian Ocean sea lanes from the Suez Canal to Singapore.
Bush administrationrelations between India and the United States were seen to have blossomed, primarily over common concerns regarding growing Islamic extremismenergy security, and climate change. Bush commented, "India is a great example of democracy. It is very devout, has diverse religious heads, but everyone is comfortable about their religion.
The world needs India". Bush as "being the most pro-Indian president in American history. According to Laskarthe UPA rule has seen a "transformation in bilateral ties with the US", as a result of which the relations now covers "a wide range of issues, including high technology, space, education, agriculture, trade, clean energy, counter-terrorism, etc".
SinceWashington and New Delhi have been pursuing a "strategic partnership" that is based on shared values and generally convergent geopolitical interests. Numerous economic, security, and global initiatives — including plans for civilian nuclear cooperation — are underway.
This latter initiative, first launched inreversed three decades of American non-proliferation policy. Also inthe United States and India signed a ten-year defence framework agreement, with the goal of expanding bilateral security cooperation.
- India–Italy relations
The two countries engaged in numerous and unprecedented combined military exercises, and major US arms sales to India were concluded. According to Michael Kugelman, South and Southeast Asia expert at the Woodrow Wilson International Center, the US was unprepared to meet new challenges in India because of its "inability to keep pace with the transformations. He also said that both countries are strengthening the relations between their defence and research organisations.
Narayanancriticised the Obama administration for linking the Kashmir dispute to the instability in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and said that by doing so, President Obama was "barking up the wrong tree. It also suggested that India take a more proactive role in rebuilding Afghanistanirrespective of the attitude of the Obama Administration.
Consequently, the Obama Administration may find itself at odds with India's rigid stance against terrorism. Calling India and the United States "natural allies",  Blake said that the United States cannot afford to meet the strategic priorities in Pakistan and Afghanistan at "the expense of India". The difference of Commonwealths consisteth in the difference of the sovereign, or the person representative of all and every one of the multitude.
And because the sovereignty is either in one man, or in an assembly of more than one; and into that assembly either every man hath right to enter, or not every one, but certain men distinguished from the rest; it is manifest there can be but three kinds of Commonwealth.
For the representative must needs be one man, or more; and if more, then it is the assembly of all, or but of a part. When the representative is one man, then is the Commonwealth a monarchy; when an assembly of all that will come together, then it is a democracy, or popular Commonwealth; when an assembly of a part only, then it is called an aristocracy. Other kind of Commonwealth there can be none: That entity may be an individual, as in an autocracyor it may be a group, as in an oligarchy.
The word despotism means to "rule in the fashion of despots". The actual role of the monarch and other members of royalty varies from purely symbolical crowned republic to partial and restricted constitutional monarchy to completely despotic absolute monarchy. Traditionally and in most cases, the post of the monarch is inheritedbut there are also elective monarchies where the monarch is elected.
The term "Aristocracy" could also refer to the non-peasant, non-servant, and non-city classes in the Feudal system.
An oligarchy is ruled by a small group of segregated, powerful or influential people who usually share similar interests or family relations. These people may spread power and elect candidates equally or not equally. An oligarchy is different from a true democracy because very few people are given the chance to change things.
An oligarchy does not have to be hereditary or monarchic. An oligarchy does not have one clear ruler but several rulers. Some critics of representative democracy think of the United States as an oligarchy. The Athenian democracy used sortition to elect candidates, almost always male, Greek, educated citizens holding a minimum of land, wealth and status.
Also refer to the rule by a government chosen by election where most of the populace are enfranchised. The key distinction between a democracy and other forms of constitutional government is usually taken to be that the right to vote is not limited by a person's wealth or race the main qualification for enfranchisement is usually having reached a certain age.
A democratic government is, therefore, one supported at least at the time of the election by a majority of the populace provided the election was held fairly. A "majority" may be defined in different ways.
There are many "power-sharing" usually in countries where people mainly identify themselves by race or religion or "electoral-college" or "constituency" systems where the government is not chosen by a simple one-vote-per-person headcount. Commonly significant in democracies are political parties, which are groups of people with similar ideas about how a country or region should be governed.