Khyber Pass, The Khyber Pass
The following is a list of mountain passes in Pakistan: The Khyber Pass, which connects the South Asian countries of Afghanistan, India and Pakistan. The Khyber Pass is a mountain pass in the northwest of Pakistan, on the border with Afghanistan. It connects the town of Landi Kotal to the Valley of Peshawar at Jamrud by During the war in Afghanistan, the Khyber Pass has been a major route for resupplying military armament and food to the NATO forces in the Afghan. Bolan pass connects Queta-Afghanistan. • Tochi pass connects Pak: China. • Length of Silk . The length of Pakistan's common border with Iran is km. .. She valiantly took part in War of Independence. She was the.
He moved towards the Indus valley river region in BCE, the region became a part of the Kushan Empire in centuries around the start of the common era 5. Mountain pass — A mountain pass is a route through a mountain range or over a ridge. At lower elevations it may be called a hill pass, the highest vehicle-accessible pass in the world appears to be Mana Pass, located in the Himalayas on the border between India and China.
Mountain passes make use of a gap, saddle or col, a topographic saddle is analogous to the mathematical concept of a saddle surface, with a saddle point marking the highest point between two valleys and the lowest point along a ridge. On a topographic map, passes are characterized by lines with an hourglass shape. Passes are often found just above the source of a river, a pass may be very short, consisting of steep slopes to the top of the pass, or may be a valley many kilometres long, whose highest point might only be identifiable by surveying.
Roads have long been built — and more recently railways — through passes, some high and rugged passes may have tunnels bored underneath to allow faster traffic flow throughout the year. The top of a pass is frequently the only ground in the area. If a national border follows a mountain range, a pass over the mountains is typically on the border, and there may be a control or customs station. For instance Argentina and Chile share the worlds third-longest international border,5, kilometres long, the border runs north-south along the Andes mountains, with a total of 42 mountain passes.
On a road over a pass, it is customary to have a roadside sign giving the name of the pass. As well as offering relatively easy travel between valleys, passes also provide a route between two mountain tops with a minimum of descent. As a result, it is common for tracks to meet at a pass, passes traditionally were places for trade routes, communications, cultural exchange, military expeditions etc.
A typical example is the Brenner pass in the Alps, some mountain passes above the tree line have problems with snow drift in the winter. This might be alleviated by building the road a few meters above the ground, there are many words for pass in the English-speaking world.
In the United States, pass is very common in the West, the gap is common in the southern Appalachians, notch in parts of New England. Scotland has the Gaelic term bealach, while Wales has the similar bwlch, the roads at Mana Pass at 5, metres and Marsimik La at 5, metres, on and near the China-India border respectively, appear to be worlds two highest motorable passes.
Media related to Mountain passes at Wikimedia Commons 6. Afghanistan was considered by the British as an independent princely state at the time, although the British controlled its foreign affairs, the single-page agreement, dated 12 Novembercontains seven short articles, including a commitment not to exercise interference beyond the Durand Line. A joint British-Afghan demarcation survey took place starting fromcovering some miles of the border, established towards the close of the Great Game, the resulting line established Afghanistan as a buffer zone between British and Russian interests in the region.
The line, as modified by the Anglo-Afghan Treaty ofwas inherited by Pakistan. From a geopolitical and geostrategic perspective, it has described as one of the most dangerous borders in the world. Although it is recognised internationally as the border of Pakistan. The area in which the Durand Line runs has been inhabited by the indigenous Pashtuns since ancient times, the Greek historian Herodotus mentioned a people called Pactyans living in and around Arachosia as early as the 1st millennium BC.
The Baloch tribes inhabit the southern end of the line, which runs in the Balochistan region that separates the ethnic Baloch people, arab Muslims conquered the area in the 7th century and introduced Islam to the Pashtuns.
It is believed some of the early Arabs also settled among the Pashtuns in the Sulaiman Mountains. It is important to note that these Pashtuns were historically known as Afghans and are believed to be mentioned by name in Arabic chronicles as early as the 10th century. Two years later, inthe British were defeated, the British again invaded Afghanistan induring the Second Anglo-Afghan War, withdrawing a couple of years later after attaining some geopolitical objectives.
During this war, the Treaty of Gandamak was signed, ceding control of various areas to the British Empire. On November 12, the Durand Line Agreement was reached, the two parties later camped at Parachinar, a small town near Khost in Afghanistan, which is now part of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan, to delineate the frontier. These areas were part of the Durrani Empire from until the s when the Sikh Empire followed by British invaded, the initial and primary demarcation, a joint Afghan-British survey and mapping effort, covered miles and took place from to 7.
Khyber Pass — The Khyber Pass is a mountain pass connecting Afghanistan and Pakistan, cutting through the northeastern part of the Spin Ghar mountains.
An integral part of the ancient Silk Road, it has long had significant cultural, economic, throughout history it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent and a strategic military location. Khyber is the Hebrew word for fort, well known invasions of the area have been predominantly through the Khyber Pass, such as the invasions by Darius I, Genghis Khan and later Mongols such as Duwa, Qutlugh Khwaja and Kebek.
To the north of the Khyber Pass lies the country of the Mullagori tribe, to the south is Afridi Tirah, while the inhabitants of villages in the Pass itself are Afridi clansmen. Throughout the centuries the Pashtun clans, particularly the Afridis and the Afghan Shinwaris, have regarded the Pass as their own preserve and have levied a toll on travellers for safe conduct.
Since this has long been their main source of income, resistance to challenges to the Shinwaris authority has often been fierce, for strategic reasons, after the First World War the British built a heavily engineered railway through the Pass. The Pass became widely known to thousands of Westerners and Japanese who traveled it in the days of the Hippie trail, at the Pakistani frontier post, travelers were advised not to wander away from the road, as the location was a barely controlled Federally Administered Tribal Area.
Then, after customs formalities, a quick daylight drive through the Pass was made, monuments left by British Army units, as well as hillside forts, could be viewed from the highway. Almost 80 percent of the NATO and US supplies that are brought in by road were transported through this Khyber Pass, furthermore, it has also been used to transport civilians from the Afghan side to the Pakistani one.
Until the end ofthis route had been relatively safe since the living there were paid by the Pakistani government to keep the area safe. However, since that year, the Taliban began to control the region, since the end ofsupply convoys and depots in this western part increasingly came under attack by elements from or supposedly sympathetic to the Pakistani Taliban. In JanuaryPakistan sealed off the bridge as part of an offensive against Taliban guerrillas.
This military operation was focused on Jamrud, a district on the Khyber road. Strategically located, traders, invaders, and nomadic tribes have used it as a gateway to. Many spots were pointed out to me by the guides I had with me, as signalised by acts of violence, about thirty-seven men were washed away upon that occasion.
An alternative route from Sibi to Quetta was found in the Harnai valley to the N.
Gomal Pass - Wikipedia
The temperature of the pass in summer is high, whereas in winter, near its head, the cold is extreme. Sincewhen the Quetta agency was founded, the pass was secured by the British Indian Army from militias of Baluch tribesmen, Balochistan Mehrgarh This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. The capital of the district is the town of Dera Ismail Khan, the district has an area of 7, km2 and a population ofas of the Census.
According to the census, the most widely spoken first language in the district was Saraiki, pashto is spoken by It was formerly divided into two almost equal portions by the Indus River, which intersected it from north to south, to the west of the Indus the characteristics of the country resembled those of Dera Ghazi Khan.
This region is inhabited by ethnic Pashtuns, to the east of the present bed of the river there is a wide tract known as the Kachi, exposed to river action. Beyond this, the country rises abruptly, and a barren, almost desert plain stretches eastwards, sparsely cultivated, in the trans-Indus tract was allotted to the newly formed North-West Frontier Province, the cis-Indus tract remaining in the Punjab jurisdiction.
The cis-Indus portions of the Dera Ismail Khan and Bannu districts now comprise the new Punjab district of Mianwali which is inhabited primarily by Saraikies. In it contained an area of 8, km2, in it became part of the newly independent Pakistan. The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement, after the independence of Pakistan inthe minority immigrant Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India Khyber Pakhtunkhwa — Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country.
It was formerly known as North-West Frontier Province and commonly called Sarhad and its provincial capital and largest city is Peshawar, followed by Mardan. It shares borders with the Federally Administered Tribal Areas to the west, Gilgit—Baltistan to the northeast, Azad Kashmir, Islamabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa does not share a border with Balochistan, which lies to its southwest.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa also shares a border with Afghanistan, connected through the Khyber Pass. It is also the site of the ancient kingdom Gandhara, the ruins of its capital, Pushkalavati, and the most prominent center of learning in the Peshawar Valley, Takht-i-Bahi. It has been under the suzerainty of the Persians, Greeks, Mauryans, Kushans, Shahis, Ghaznavids, Mughals, Afghanistan, Sikhs, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the third largest province of Pakistan by the size of both population and economy though it is geographically the smallest of four.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa means Khyber side of the land of Pakhtuns while only the word Pakhtunkhwa means Land of Pakhtuns and according to scholars it means Pakhtun culture.
List of mountain passes in Pakistan - Wikipedia
When the British established it as a province, they called it North West Frontier Province due to its location being in north west of their Indian Empire. After independence of Pakistan, Pakistan continued with this name but a Pakhtun nationalist party and their logic behind that demand was that Punjabi people, Sindhi people and Balochi people have their provinces named after their ethnicities but that is not the case for Pashtun people.
Major political parties especially Pakistan Muslim League were against that name since it was too similar to Bacha Khans demand of separate nation Pashtunistan. Darius Hystaspes subsequently subdued the races dwelling west of the Indus, Gandhara was incorporated into the Persian Empire as one of its far easternmost satrapy system of government.
Alexander then dispatched part of his force through the valley of the Kabul River, while he advanced into modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwas Bajaur. Eudemus then left the region, and with his departure Macedonian power collapsed, sandrocottus, the founder of the Mauryan dynasty, then declared himself master of the province. His grandson, Ashoka, made Buddhism the dominant religion in ancient Gandhara, after Ashokas death the Mauryan empire collapse, just as in the west the Seleucid power was rising These invasions also consist of subsequent Muslim attacks to South Asia, ending with the setting up of the Mughal Empire in The British Army attacked Afghanistan from India and took part in three Afghan battles; in, and Towards the north of the Khyber Pass, the territory of the Mullagori clan is situated.
Towards the south of the pass, the Afridi Tirah is located as the residents of the rural areas in the pass are Afridi tribal. Across a number of centuries, the Pashtun tribes, specifically the Afghan Shinwaris and the Afridis have considered the pass as their own territory and imposed a duty on tourists for secure demeanor. As this was a source of their revenue for an extensive period of time, opposition to defiance to the power of the Shinwaris has frequently been severe.
For tactical purposes, following the culmination of the First World War, the British Armed Forces constructed a profoundly engineered rail track in the course of the pass. The Khbar Pass was well known to many Japanese and people of the Western world who visited it in the periods of the hippie trail, boarding a bus or vehicle from Kabul to the boundary of Afghanistan.
Near the border post of Pakistan, tourists were recommended not to go astray from the path since the place was then a scarcely regulated Federally Administered Tribal Region.
Subsequently, following customs procedures, a rapid daytime trip through the pass was offered. Tombstones left by the divisions of British Military Forces and hillside citadels are seen from the main road. The region of the Khyber Pass has been associated with a fake weaponry industry, manufacturing different types of firearms that are branded to arms collectors as Khyber Pass Copies.
The Pathans have overwhelmed the most powerful ground forces of their day twice.
List of mountain passes in Pakistan
When Alexander the Great wished to go over the pass, he was unable to control it for many weeks till the time he enticed one of the regional tribal chiefs into helping him in opposition to those who were obstructing him.
Great Britain was involved in a number of battles against the Pathans and was never able to conquer the territory entirely. During the first Afghan battle, an army of 16, entered the territory and only one could return alive. Pashtuns were also enrolled into the British Armed Forces, where they served as outstanding fighters. SincePashtuns have been battling the Russian army, other forces of Afghanistan, the U.
The Pashtuns supplied the majority of the supporters of Taliban. If Osama Bin Laden is still surviving, this is the place probably where he is hiding. Going over the Khyber Pass has always been like an escapade.