SUMMA THEOLOGIAE: The impediment of affinity (Supplementum, Q. 55)
S Y S T EM S CONSANGUINITY AND AFFINITY CF THE UMAN FAMILY. In the systems of relationship of the great families of mankind some of the oldest memorials of human thought and experience are deposited and .. In this spirit I applied to Prof. Joseph In his native state, the Indian is below the passion of love. Friendship, ambition, love, and familism, are the true motives of sociability — the sources of all social S. Affinity (spiritual) — combination for Fame. Which relationships were impediments to marriage varied at forbid marriages with consanguinity or affinity (kinship by marriage) to the.
Hence A natural liking for, or attraction to, a person or thing; a natural drawing or inclination; an inherent mutual liking or attraction.
Inherent likeness or agreement as between things; essential or specific conformity; intimate resemblance or connection.
In biology, morphological and implied genetic relationship, resulting in a resemblance in general plan or structure, or in the essential structural parts, existing between two organisms or groups of organisms; true and near structural relationship, predicable of two or more organisms morphologically related, however diverse physiologically.
In psychology, that in ideas which renders them capable of being associated in the mind, as their similarity or coadjacency. In geometry, the relationship between two figures in the same plane which correspond to each other, point to point and straight line to straight line, any point of the one lying in a fixed direction from the corresponding point of the other, and at a distance from it proportional to its distance from a fixed line, called the axis of affinity, the direction of which is that of lines joining corresponding points.
In projective geometry, a perspective of which the center is at an infinite distance. Examples How could two chemists converse on chemistry without the use of the term affinity, and the theoretical conception it involves?
Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, No. Yes; but the term affinity is objectionable in this case, because, as that word is used to express a chemical attraction which can be destroyed only by decompositionit cannot be applicable to the slight and transient union that takes place between free caloric and the bodies through which it passes; an union which is so weak, that it constantly yields to the tendency which caloric has to an equilibrium.
Conversations on Chemistry, V. Further, there are a number of impediments which not only render a marriage unlawful and sinful, but also null and void. Let us clearly understand the difference between what is unlawful and what is invalid. If I burn down my neighbor's haystack, it is validly burnt down, for there is no haystack left; but it is unlawfully burnt down.
My action is valid, but not lawful. If I shoot at my neighbor in the dark and miss him, my action is both unlawful and invalid. I have intended to take my neighbor's life, but have failed to do so. Likewise, there may be certain attempts to get married which, on account of certain impediments, produce no effect.
Such ceremonies are both unlawful and invalid. It is the duty of the priest to inquire whether there be any such impediments before he allows the celebration to take place. Most of them are so rare as not to need public treatment.
When the banns are published, the faithful are told that if they know of any impediment, either of consanguinity, affinity, or spiritual relationship, they are bound to declare the same as soon as possible. The impediment of spiritual relationship is that which arises out of the Sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation.
The chances of this relationship are reduced to a minimum by the custom of having a man as sponsor for the boys and a woman as sponsor for the girls. The two great diriment impediments, therefore, which need to be carefully watched by young people are the impediments of consanguinity and affinity.
Consanguinity is the connection of blood relationship; affinity is the connection of relationship by marriage. The Church excludes marriages between persons who may be related to each other within certain degrees of relationship. She thus forbids marriage between first, second, or third cousins; and also between a man and his deceased wife's sister. These are the more common cases in which difficulty arises and which need to be carefully guarded against. In some of them, of course, which are not involved in the primary law of nature the Church may grant a dispensation.
Nevertheless, she regards them as evil, and only grants dispensations in order to prevent greater evils. The disastrous results of intermarriage are well known. It leads to deterioration of the race, to insanity, to physical deformity, and to a general weakening of the social bond.
The Church, therefore, in setting her face against such marriages, proves herself to be the friend and guardian of the temporal, as well as of the spiritual well-being of her people. Now, although the Church is very strict in limiting the freedom of her children whenever it is for their good, yet at the same time she leaves much to their own individual judgment.
Those who look forward to a happy marriage, therefore, must avail themselves of that freedom which the Church allows, and use also their own sound judgment and common sense. In this sphere one cannot lay down hard and fast rules. What is good in England may be bad in America; what is permissible in one degree of society may be inadvisable in another. The custom of the country or of the particular sphere of Catholic society is a point which must always be considered.
consanguinity | hbd chick
Nevertheless, a few general suggestions may be offered. Character or virtue will be the first quality to be sought for in the choice of a mate. The predominant and essential virtues expected from the man are honesty and sobriety. These are especially manly virtues.
In the natural order it is the sense of honor which will keep the husband faithful to his wife, and insure for her that respect, care, and protection to which she has a right.
Sobriety, too, is absolutely necessary for the making of a happy home. The love may be there and the fidelity may be there, but they will be in constant peril if they are accompanied by drunkenness. And if drunkenness be a failing during the days of courtship, a reform after marriage cannot be expected.
The pity of it is that girls are only too eager to find excuses for a lover addicted to this failing. The predominant virtue expected from the woman is chastity. This will be measured by the care which she takes in avoiding occasions of sin. Here it is not a question of having sinned grievously, but of a constant observance of all those habits of modesty, reticence, sobriety of language and gesture, and, above all, utmost decorum in all necessary intercourse with members of the opposite sex.
They are habits which can be observed and felt much more effectually than they can be described. In fact, every Catholic girl knows them, and no one is so observant of and sensitive to them as the honorable young man who comes to pay court to her. Next, compatibility of temper must be examined. It is easy to discern.
Quarrels during time of courtship may be reasonably excused from time to time. The proverb that true love never runs smoothly implies that, in the common estimation of mankind, lovers' quarrels are a part of the business of love-making among those who are not angels. But there are some lovers whose courtship seems to be one perpetual quarrel, one everlasting carping, jealous insinuation, and complaint.
While neither set of figures show kinship to have been a major part of business, they both show that it was still a relatively usual part. He finished his circuit on a more flexible note and began to base his decisions on the degree of local scandal that the cases inspired.
He also exhibited doubts about the application of the rules which held that affinity arose from mere sexual relationships. Thus the courts could take an accomodating attitude to the rules about kinship, and sometimes finesse or ignore stict application of the rules.
Rhetoric or not, such a declaration in a court case would have been dramatic, and would not have been plausible were the rules not accepted…. However, in several cases a papal dispensation was held to be, or appeared to be, insufficient.
Question 55. The impediment of affinity
A priest had attempted this and failed. Since the relationship was in the fourth degree of consanguinity this statement is unlikely to be true…. Clearly, consanguinity and affinity could be used or discovered to escape from marriages, but the records suggest that they were not often used to escape from current marriages; instead they were more common as a defence in marriage enforcement cases.