A Brief, Year History of Guam | At the Smithsonian | Smithsonian
an overview of the colonial history and culture of the Chamarro people of Guam. of the language was destructive to their identity and how Chamorros viewed Most indigenous people have a deeply rooted and emotional relationship to. Chamorro culture is collectivist, as is about 70% of the world, unlike mainland U.S. culture which is individualistic. This vast difference in the. The original Chamorros spoke an Austronesian language that was an . the relationship of Chamorro to Philippine and Indonesian languages, and . part of the culture of the earliest migrants to Taiwan from Southeast Asia.
Culture of Guam - Wikipedia
Muscle cells, skin cells, nerve cells and other body cells have 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes carry information for traits like hair color, eye color, height, skin tone, etc. However, sex cells—eggs and sperm which are used in reproduction, only have half the number of chromosomes, or The parents of an individual contribute one of each pair of homologous chromosomes to bring the number of chromosomes back up to 23 pairs 46 in total.
Twenty-two of the chromosome pairs are called autosomes. This explains, in part, why siblings who have the same parents would be genetically and physically different from each other. Because of the variations in genetic material that occur during reproduction, it is possible to map the movement of certain kinds of genes and the characteristics they code for among populations.
Gene flow is the movement of genes from one population to another. Scientists measure the frequency certain kinds of genes appear in a given population. This is how they determine if a gene or a population that carries the gene has moved from one place to another. Most often, scientists look for changes in DNA, or mutations, because these stand out and are easier to track.
Research questions in relation to previous studies An early study of Chamorro genetics in by C. Cruz, and in by J.
7 Things You Need to Know About Marrying a Chamorro – The Guam Guide
Cann, demonstrated that Chamorros are distinctive in relation to neighboring Micronesian populations. The Lum and Cann study reported that more than 85 percent of the Chamorros studied belong to mtDNA haplogroups E1 and E2, which are relatively common in populations from Island Southeast Asia, but rare in other groups of Pacific islands. Most of the remaining Chamorro lineage groups belonged to a unique haplogroup labeled B4a1a1a, which is common in Island Southeast Asia and Melanesia.
They are usually designated by letters of the alphabet and numbers to indicate more specific haplogroups. When an SNP occurs, it becomes a marker that can be passed on from one generation to the next. Humans who descend from the same genetic line will share a common SNP. Haplogroup lineages can then be mapped out like a tree, showing more diversity over time through the various branches that emerge.
The fundamental research question that the Vilar group is trying to answer is whether Chamorros are the direct descendants of a single migration from Island Southeast Asia around 4, years ago, or the descendants of a second wave of migrations from Island Southeast Asia about 1, years ago.
The question arises from an understanding of the two distinct periods of Marianas history—the pre-Latte Era and the Latte Era. The Vilar team is also interested in finding if the Chamorro gene pool shows evidence of gene flow from neighboring islands. Archeological evidence points to settlement of the Marianas as early as 3, years ago, and the appearance of a unique clay pottery style, referred to as Marianas redware.
7 Things You Need to Know About Marrying a Chamorro
Marianas redware shows similarities with other pottery styles of the same period in Southeast Asia and what is known as the Lapita Cultural Complex. However, both rice cultivation and latte construction do not appear until the Latte Era, beginning about 1, years ago.
Genetic study of modern Chamorros may provide clues to test competing theories as to whether Latte Era people are descendants of earlier pre-Latte people, or are largely descended from a second migration wave, which brought latte technology and rice agriculture to these islands.
They also reassessed the samples from neighboring islands collected during the Lum and Cann study, but with additional information. The scientists also analyzed the complete mtDNA of 32 individual Chamorros. The individuals tested in the sample population together showed 19 unique haplotypes groups of traits inherited togetherwhile the Chamorros showed 14 haplotypes.
The Chamorro group also shared mtDNA mutations characteristic of the E1 and E2 haplogroups, which none of the 17 individuals with Carolinian ancestry showed. About 65 percent of the Chamorro individuals had the E2 haplogroup; the low frequency of variations resembled the pattern seen in a young expanding population. About 28 percent of the Chamorro lineages belonged to the E1 haplogroup, which also resembled a young expanding population.
A Brief, 500-Year History of Guam
Analysis of the specific E1 and E2 haplogroups of the Chamorros showed they were not present outside the Mariana Islands.
This pattern indicates that a founder effect occurred. A founder effect is when an original founding population arrives, becomes isolated, and over time, results in a new population that has only a small amount of the genetic variation seen in the original population.
In the Marianas, the founding E1 and E2 haplogroup lineages arrived from Island Southeast Asia around 4, years ago and after 3, years in isolation, the two lineages acquired the mutations that gave rise to the unique genetic lineage seen in the Marianas.
The scientists also believe the initial arrival of the Marianas population may have occurred even earlier, maybe 5, years ago. The B4 haplogroup was found in only 8 percent of the Chamorro lineages, but percent of the individuals with Carolinian ancestry. From Chamorro dictionaries,  to the most recent "Speak Chamorro" app,  efforts are growing and expanding in ways to preserve and protect the Chamorro language and identity.
On YouTube, a popular Chamorro soap opera Siha  has received mostly positive feedback from native Chamorro speakers on its ability to weave dramatics, the Chamorro language, and island culture into an entertaining program.
Rather, like Palauanit constitutes a possibly independent branch of the Malayo-Polynesian language family. Its indigenous origins are thus somewhat obscure. At the time the Spanish rule over Guam ended, it was thought that Chamorro was a semi-Creole language, with a substantial amount of the vocabulary of Spanish origin and beginning to have a high level of mutual intelligibility with Spanish.
It is reported that even in the early s Spanish was reported to be a living language in Guam for commercial transactions, but the use of Spanish and Chamorro was rapidly declining as a result of English pressure. Spanish influences in the language exist due to three centuries of Spanish colonial rule.
Many words in the Chamorro lexicon are of Latin etymological origin via Spanish, but their use conforms with indigenous grammatical structures.
Furthermore, indigenous pronunciation has "nativized" most words of foreign origin that haven't conformed to the ways that indigenous speakers of the language are accustomed to making sounds.
By some it may be considered a mixed language  under a historical point of view, even though it remains independent and unique. There was wholesale borrowing of Spanish words and phrases into Chamorro, and there was even some borrowing from the Spanish sound system.
But this borrowing was linguistically superficial. The bones of the Chamorro language remained intact. In virtually all cases of borrowing, Spanish words were forced to conform to the Chamorro sound system.
While Spanish may have left a lasting mark on Chamorro vocabulary, as it did on many Philippine and South American languages, it had virtually no effect on Chamorro grammar. Japanese influence on Chamorro was much greater than that of German, but much less than Spanish.